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THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



ftkfld'dl HUW 8 Ulf P 53" ^HfeuraOTfe II 

ycr fe»r^t OFfrxf fef drfo ufo edn?> tirtii ufo ufo wuft fegv 1 oft 
urayftr H'ddd oth frit 11 H'ddd oth frit urayftr ufo ufo hu 1 tort u Hzftw 
f%% fet Htwt ufo e^brt ^zr w^ ii ^tr ud>r d^fe oft tot hUt ufo ufo 
(VK forat ii hit fewt Qstaif urayfrr ufo edTT?> fet ii ^ ii ^w uw At 
wzw urayt ufo uiw 11 »rfaT»r?> *%$& offew ura- ftr»r?> y€f y a 1 fear n 

sfo»F UTd" tUTW 1 ?? WTd 7 fefw Ufa dB?> IT^W WU 1 II ufA % Uffe»f tW 

wh 1 »ry nnu uranfe tru 1 11 »fora Hdfe ^§ urfw >»ry<VHl tt ot£ wt ?> 

tTffeW II ^TOT U»f At grW UTdK^ Ufa UrfW II P II Ufa Hfe H§ At 
HITCF Ufa tT?> frffo ife HUet II £teo{# ufo fftV HZTtft f%fe H'dd3 tftt HU^t 
II H'dd3 f%fe tfdT HUet frrf?) £teo{# (VK HHTfWf II Hf HslfaQ tT?JH TH?) 1 ' E 1 

urayftr frw h?> frrfe w ^fw 11 ufo h? tT?r frrfo ordH Hftmf ^§ 

ITffevM 1 ITd^ »f&5T II Ufa Hfe Hfe At ^W Ufa tT?> frffe tfe HU^t II 3 II 
ufo IT§" At wxw ufo ^TT Pt: 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



3?> sun yd'fdiw 1 At stfi^ uft wwu q?> &ms\ tftf ii h? h?^ fafo urfw 

At 3tf%^ A^ 1 Ufa Uf 7TO W tftf II Ufa »Tfe fi-ffo»F HdlrlkcS At Utf^ 
H HftT fed'il 1st tftf II P II A IfoU WS A^ 1 Ufa Uf TTO H Hfc 3fc fU 

wdi'ylm 1 tftf ii uf ^fu ?> Hoff fa?> £u At uteH A >>fefo fauu ufo W&W 
tftf ii ufo siw Au 1 Htre funn^ 1 ujf A$ Au 1 h?> tWf tftf 11 At Hfc 
nfo ww utt»r At atf^ - nit fi-ffo»r Hfo ^'ylw 1 tftf 11 3 11 ^tt At 
utf^ ^tt At fwfw 1 uf ng tefe»fu hu ^tt tftf 11 At Hfc sfo Oy 

ftltK oT At 3tf%^ Uft Utft U^ UHTUT tftf II Hfddjd f%H<r Afe At 3tf^ 
UfU A^ offt UWt tftf II Zjfo (TH Ufe»F offo UrfW At #1^ rf?> (TO^ 
HUfe HH 1 ^ tftf II 8 II 3 II Ptf II €? II Ulf^t H 1 ^ HUW 8 II Utft At Utf^ 

#tft At fwfu»r ufo U3" A^ 1 utft tft§ 11 ufo »ru oro Surfed At 3tf%^ 
ufo »pu utut utft tftf ii uft »ru H3" uj^ ture 1 At aifW »ru uhW tuft 
tftf ii nit hto ?> f^^t At arf^ »ru Hfddjd nuft tftf 11 
<\ ii »fu tiuTH fvrfe^ 1 At uff%^ uft »rfV ut -su tuft tftf 11 feo^ ggr 
^di'fyti 1 At uff^ fefe ?>uT?j feuftr #ur Suft tftf 11 »fu tms firfs^ 1 At 

Urf%^ Ufa U 1 ?? £t H^ HUft tftf II 3UTH 1 (TK ttfW ff At 3tf^ Ufa ofH 1 

Hurftr ufo traft tftf ii p ii ufo »ru ^urfe owf^ 1 At ulf^e 1 ufo ^uth 1 ^u 
Hfo utt tftf ii »fu nfe nfe ^ddti 1 At urf%^ ut% uftmr ?kjt ett tftf 11 
ufo >feft wfo »rtu ff At atfe 1 ufo »rfu ufu»r ^uutt tftf 11 ufo »r3H 
a^y UHrftw At if^ ufe %t »rtu ueut tftf 11 3 11 nit >feft ^tr uf^ 
ff At utf^r ufe »rtu ^w^ fef ^h tftf ii ufo »fefe (TK fccr^ f At 
utf^ uju Hwt uit uf uph tftf ii »ru H^fe u^fe^ 1 At utf^ ufe ^uth 
ffiT ^tr wh °iP8 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the most sacred Book of the Sikhs. It was compiled by the 
fifth Guru, Guru Arjan, in 1604, in Amritsar. A voluminous text of fourteen hundred 
and thirty pages, it includes the compositions of the first five Gurus, Guru Nanak, Guru 
Angad, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das and Guru Arjan himself. A few hymns of the 
ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur were also included later by the tenth Guru, Guru 
Gobind Singh. Besides these compositions of the Sikh Gurus, Guru Arjan had added the 
compositions of the Muslim saint, Baba Farid, and of a number of Hindu saints of the 
Bhakti movement. Apart from the initial composition, Japuji of the first Guru, Guru 
Nanak, all other hymns are set to one or the other thirty-one classical ragas. 

The phonetic transcription of the language of Guru Granth has shown that there are 
numerous variations in orthographic notations. A large number of words have two 
spellings, some three or even more. It is due primarily to the fact that the language of 
this religious discourse of the sixteenth century has a number of interacting linguistic 
registers. To begin with is the register of Western Punjabi where at the outset we have 
>5ffe JTO" Hdl'fe Fra" || f 1 # Fra" (¥?>or UFft # FR" ll After Guru Nanak, the Gurus whose 

compositions appear in the Granth stayed in and around Amritsar, hence the influence 
of the Majhi dialect. The frequent variation between [w] and [b] refers to Doaba and 
Malwa. The alternation from [n] to [n] is also very common. It is interesting to note that 
in some compositions, pages, [b] is more frequent than [w], and [n] than [n]. Is it due to 
the dialect of the scribe? Then there is the overwhelming language of the religious 
discourse of the period, the Sadh Bhasa. The differences in spelling may occasionally be 
due to the reference to one linguistic register or the other. The extremely frequent 
variations in short and long or high and low vowels are most probably due to the meters 
of the ragas, the musical compositions. All these inferences require extremely 
meticulous researches of the various interacting levels of linguistic registers. Professor 
Sahib Singh is the only scholar who made a serious attempt at deciphering these 
intricacies but he worked mostly on the additional short vowels, [u] and [i], which have 
no phonetic value. According to Professor Sahib Singh, these vowels refer to 
grammatical functions of number, gender and case. As far as other variations are 
concerned, there is hardly any thing of serious note. The absolutely correct reading of 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



Guru Granth is the most sacred task in Sikh theology. It is but natural that this linguistic 
aspect of the most holy Book of the Sikhs needs a very diligent and very urgent 
attention. These researches will obviously take a very long time and hard work by 
eminent musicologists and linguists. For the time being, what is required is to follow 
these variations in Gurmukhi orthography. The readers must articulate these phonetic 
realisations as they are presented graphically in the sacred text. The first right step in 
this direction is to read the text, word by word, and very slowly. The modern practice of 
recitation and very fast reading, especially in Akhand Path, obliterates all these 
distinctions when these variations occur within the same utterance or within the same 
composition. We must remember that in this religious discourse we are dealing with the 
language of the sixteenth century. The phonetic patterns of modern Punjabi cannot be 
imposed on its linguistic register... The text that is used for this transcription is the 
version duly approved, printed and published by the SGPC, Shiromani Gurdwara 
Parbandhak Committee. 



Harjeet Singh Gill 
Professor Emeritus 
Jawaharlal Nehru University 
New Delhi. 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



The orthographic variations in Guru Granth may be presented as follows : 
a/a 

€>H arayftf oft§ vm^ II H U PUO [akara] 

fodd'd »Tora Wflr P<SddJ<S H33J?* §of II HU PUO [akar] 

inrMkwr Awkwr Awip inrgun srgun eyk ] eykih eyk bKwnno nwnk 
eyk Anyk ] 1 ] pauVI ] EAM gurmuiK klE Akwrw ] eykih sUiq 
provnhwrw m 5 250 

arayftf ftnft »ra T ftj»r fetf sfw sjQhw hfrj ii h 3 tf o [aradia] 

<TO5T ufe ?PH ftTSt »rg T ftl»F W?fe ufe fe? 3^ II H3 tf O [aradia] 

nwnk hir nwmu ijnl AwrwiDAw Anidnu hir ilv qwr ] mwieAw 
bMdl Ksm kl iqn AgY kmwvY kwr ] pUrY pUrw kir CoifAw hukim 
svwrxhwr ] gur prswdl ijnl buiJAw iqin pwieAw moK duAwru ] 
mnmuK hukmu n jwxnl iqn mwry jm jMdwru ] gurmuiK ijnl 
ArwiDAw iqnl qirAw Baujlu sMswru m 3 90 

3J3" i^wt H^fe TWift II H 3 Wf [salahl] 

fef cffo #bT fef H'rt'Jl II H 3 «Wf [salahl] 

ikau kir vyKw ikau swlwhl ] gur prswdl sbid slwhl ] qyry 
Bwxy ivic AMimRqu vsY qUM BwxY AMimRqu pIAwvixAw ] 7 ] 
AMimRq sbdu AMimRq hir bwxl ] siqguir syivAY irdY smwxl ] 
nwnk AMimRq nwmu sdw suKdwqw pi AMimRqu sB BuK lih jwvixAw 
1 8 1 m 3 119 



8 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

Hfc ft^Hfo ^H H\J Hfe II wfe ^fTM W&\ H¥ dT^ II H 3 °[Urz [sac] [sac] 
fas fy <5Ut fes fPfe TJiut fes % ?> P^ 1 II H8 <*£;> [nahl] [nahl] 
gUK ftTW?ft oT ?>ut faOTT ll H V| pp3 [nahl] 

SRJH ftlW?ft ot (TOt VW |l H Vj PP3 [nahl] 

bRhm igAwnl eyk aUpir Aws ] bRhm igAwnl kw nhl ibnws ] bRhm 
igAwnl kY grlbl smwhw ] bRhm igAwnl praupkwr aumwhw ] bRhm 
igAwnl kY nwhl DMDw ] bRhm igAwnl ly Dwvqu bMDw ] m 5 273 

SRJH fawft off H^ »R*H II H VI PP3 [ades] 

»P^H feH »P^H II H ^ P [ades] 

fe Hd£'«1 ?&$ ?TOoT VT3 »W II H vj tlO [adar] 

3t SB?^ W$V[ WF3 H3ft »ntM Wt yltJ'dlm Hrf II H Vj tlO [adar] 

sMq srxwel lBxy nwnk pRwx ADwr ] 1 ] CMqu ] crn kml isau 
pRIiq rliq sMqn min Awvey jlau ] duqIAw Bwau ibprliq Anliq 
dwsw nh Bwvey jlau ] dwsw nh Bwvey ibnu drswvey iek iKnu 
DIrju ikau krY ] nwm ibhUnw qnu mnu hlnw jl ibnu mCulI ijau 
rarY ] imlu myry ipAwry pRwn ADwry gux swDsMig imil gwvey ] 
nwnk ky suAwml Dwir AnugRhu min qin AMik smwvey ] 1 ] fKxw 
] sohMdVo hB Twie koie n idsY fUjVo ] Kul@Vy kpwt nwnk 
siqgur Bytqy ] 1 ] CMqu ] qyry ben AnUp Apwr sMqn AwDwr 
bwxl blcwrlAY jlau ] m 5 80 

3J3 - H^ 1 ^ ?> vrefrtf ?F 3# (7 ffe II H3 t8 [na] [na] [na] 
M56T oPHfe H^ Hd'dlfe W fm m ?> W$ II H 3 P8VJ [na] [na] 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 9 

fm oT HUW ?> y^st <V hW m W II H 3 3^ [na] [na] 

uf uf orant fraj fe^t jt tr?> m jvfe ii 

>M JVH 7) %3Z\ HF S^ot HHoPfo II H 3 3P [na] [na] 

mfw mrf ?> ^ era - ?r fofs ut oph ii h ^ po [na] [na] 

UW sm\ UWfe dlf ?>f Od^'d 7i W3 II H 3 Ptf [na] [na] 

The rhythmic movement from [na] to [na], [ta] to [ta] is highly complex and yet the 
reader has no choice. Phonologically, there is no short vowel in the final position but the 
musical note requires this opposition to be realised properly. 

STUH fawft t Uffe H5 1 »ffc II H U pp3 [anad] 

Htf HUH »1TO fWH II H U p=\o [anad] 

»17)E fa^H HH 3*^ 3g ^t H U^ Hrf II H U =\oo [anad] 

W5E HtT §^ ufe M5oT HfiH fo^'dM H£W ntd 7 II H U po8 [anad] 

ufe fnf nt 3T Hf ^ >% ii ufe frrf nt s 0>dtJM ute ii h u P3t: [ta] [ta] 

ftTHfc trfe WW7T H^H H^fw II H U ^Ot: [apna] 
WRIST jv§ nfiflf ^Rret || h y =\ot: [apna] 

WI& »ry f »rflr UsJ'ifd ll H U ^Ot: [apna] 

idRsit Dwir Apnw dwsu svwirAw ] Gt Gt AMqir pwrbRhmu 
nmskwirAw ] ieksu ivxu horu dUjw nwhl bwbw nwnk ieh miq 
swrl jlau ] 4 ] 39 ] 46 ] m 5 108 



10 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



Awpxw nwau Awip jpwel ] gur boihQu pwieAw ikrpw qy nwnk 
Duir sMjogw jlau ] 4 ] 41 ] 48 ] mwJ mhlw 5 ] soel krxw ij 
Awip krwey ] ijQY rKY sw B1I jwey ] soel isAwxw so piqvMqw 
hukmu lgY ijsu mITw jlau ] 1 ] sB proel iekqu DwgY ] ijsu 
lwie ley so crxl lwgY ] aU0~D kvlu ijsu hoie pRgwsw iqin 
srb inrMjnu fITw jlau ] 2 ] qyrl mihmw qUMhY jwxih ] Apxw 
Awpu qUM Awip pCwxih ] hau bilhwrl sMqn qyry ijin kwmu 
k®oDu loBu pITw jlau ] m 5 108 

H 3§ dfl£ »Hj£ fe?T f ft+fo§fa II H U t:^ [apne] 
»W^ 5^fe H yfwfe»f II H U =\op [apune] 

»Ol£ ora3¥ WH W^fa WH 3g TWfttW tftf II H U ^CQ [apne] 

ApunY Twkuir jo pihrwieAw ] bhuir n lyKw puiC bulwieAw ] 
iqsu syvk kY nwnk kurbwxl so gihr gBIrw gauhru jlau ] m 5 
102 

qUM inrguxu srguxu suKdwqw ] qUM inrbwxu rsIAw rMig rwqw ] 
Apxy krqb Awpy jwxih Awpy quDu smwlIAY jlau ] 3 ] qUM 
Twkuru syvku Puin Awpy ] qUM gupqu prgtu pRB Awpy ] m 5 
102 

3M fKfe >W<V t(HH ftmr^f ll H JJ °O0 [apuna] 
^H »Ol£ oft ^tf^U 1 ^ II H U =\pp [apne] 

m >xy£ hh ^ efenra ii y^5 ret ^or ura h sra?> orfc dft£ »w£ ?w 11 h u ^Pt: 

[apune] [apne] 

§^ §^ »py7j ?JUt oPH II H U °ltzp [apan] 

ww un^ »p£r yfe wtf h £ h mr wfe§ wjtf Hfwf n h u pgo 
[apuna] [apna] 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 1 1 



ijin guir mo kau dlnw jlau ] Awpunw dwsrw Awpy muil llau 
] 6 ] Awpy lwieE Apnw ipAwru ] sdw sdw iqsu gur kau krl 
nmskwru ] 7 ] kil klys BY BRm duK lwQw ] khu nwnk myrw guru 
smrwQw ] 8 ] 9 ] m 5 24 



u/u 

Hfc huh m f$ arfw 33 wm h^ nfk fkfe an* ii h u t«\ [sukh] 
h^h jw »r£u w& flwrt ufe 33?> h?^ «fefe Hte3 ii h y t«\ [sukh] 

srbso sUK Awnud Gn ipAwry hir rqnu mn AMqir slvqy ] ieku 
iqlu nhl ivsrY pRwn AwDwrw jip jip nwnk jlvqy ] 3 ] fKxw ] 
jo qau klny Awpxy iqnw kUM imilEih ] Awpy hi Awip moihEhu 
jsu nwnk Awip suixEih ] 1 ] CMqu ] pRym Tgaurl pwie rlJwie 
goibMd mnu moihAw jlau ] sMqn kY prswid AgwiD kMTy lig 
soihAw jlau ] hir kMiT lig soihAw doK siB joihAw Bgiq IK'x 
kir vis Bey ] min srb suK vuTy goivd quTy jnm mrxw siB imit 
gey ] m 5 81 

5VH Ufe flJH W Hfddld fm TW$* II H 3 £t [upje] 

hw ut 3 huh fun ufe irfenr m Hfe H3 ft [upje] 

nwmu hir aupjY jw siqguru imlY suBwey ] mnu qnu ArpI Awpu 
gvwel clw siqgur Bwey ] sd 

bilhwrl gur Apuny ivthu ij hir syql icqu lwey ] 7 ] so 
bRwhmxu bRhmu jo ibMdy hir syql rMig rwqw ] pRBu inkit vsY 
sBnw Gt AMqir gurmuiK ivrlY jwqw ] nwnk nwmu imlY vifAwel 
gur kY sbid pCwqw ] 8 ] 5 ] 22 ] isrlrwgu mhlw 3 ] shjY no 



12 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



sB locdl ibnu gur pwieAw n jwie ] piV piV pMifq joqkl Qky 
ByKI Brim Bulwey ] gur Byty shju pwieAw Awpxl ikrpw kry 
rjwie ] 1 ] Bwel ry gur ibnu shju n hoie ] sbdY hi qy shju 
aUpjY hir pwieAw scu soie ] 1 ] rhwau ] shjy gwivAw Qwie 
pvY ibnu shjY kQnl bwid ] shjy hi Bgiq aUpjY shij ipAwir 
bYrwig ] shjY hi qy suK swiq hoie ibnu shjY jlvxu bwid 
12] m 3 68 



i/T 

t fe to *toot urft fk to ii h y Ptu [bi] [bi] 
tf z\ to fiw urft ^t to ii h *\ *\ [bi] [bi] 

Apparently the enunciation of Japuji is repeated in Sukhmani with a change from long 
[I] to short [i], the difference could be due to the rhythm of the new composition : 

»rfe to twfc to ii t ^t to ?^of unt ^t to 11 ^ 11 

Hfe ii nrfe to twfc to ii fr fk to <w>cr urft fk to ii «\ ii wrotret n e^ Hfe Hfe 

UdHrtd'd II yfF Hfe Hfe tf^'d II 
^fe f^ f^ 1 offe 3l£ v>F& fe tJM£d'd II H *\ iS [bi] 
owf HHTIftt H'feHl fofw ?t JV^ i=Ffe II H 3 t8 [bi] 
Hfddld ftf%>tf ufe Hfc ^ fiff ft % IJ33T II H 3 it [sevie] 

to Hirii £#^ arayftf ^h Hfc »rfe 11 H3 it [sevie] 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 13 



sew swihbu syvIAY gurmuiK vsY min Awie ] sdw rMig rwqy sc 
isau ApunI ikrpw kry imlwie ] 7 ] Awpy kry krwey Awpy ieknw 
suiqAw dyie jgwie ] Awpy myil imlwiedw nwnk sbid smwie 
] 8 ] 7 ] 24 ] isrlrwgu mhlw 3 ] siqguir syivAY mnu inrmlw 
Bey pivqu srlr ] min Awnudu sdw suKu pwieAw ByitAw gihr 
gMBIru ] scl sMgiq bYsxw sic nwim mnu DIr ] 1 ] mn ry 
siqguru syiv insMgu ] siqguru syivAY hir min vsY lgY n mYlu 
pqMgu ] 1 ] m 3 6 9 

Hfe>^ frw vffa Hfe (VH II H ^ P [sunie] 

W*£\W HSlw Hfc 3vflw W§ II H °[ 3 [sunie] 

gwvIAY suxIAY min rKIAY Bwau ] duKu prhir suKu Gir 1Y jwie 
] gurmuiK nwdM gurmuiK vydM gurmuiK rihAw smwel ] guru 
elsru guru gorKu brmw guru pwrbql mwel ] m 1 2 

suixAY isD plr suir nwQ ] suixAY Driq Dvl Awkws ] suixAY 
dip loA pwqwl ] suixAY poih n skY kwlu ] nwnk Bgqw sdw 
ivgwsu ] suixAY dUK pwp kw nwsu ] 8 ] suixAY elsru brmw 
ieMdu ] suixAY muiK swlwhx mMdu ] suixAY jog jugiq qin Byd 
] suixAY swsq isimRiq vyd ] m 1 2 

Ufe ryHfd>^ tJtf 33T Uj3t || H vj *\tP [bisarie] 

?tfw fyH'fd^ Hf S# ffe II H *\ PP£ [bisarie] 

HPddJd tfe>tf fc^HW U»F W?fe JVH ^ft II H 3 €? [petie] 

ftJR ftfe ?5ftW tfl^ffi &&&> V&fit vpfe II H VI 3Tt [lagie] 

yfe Hferfew ft 3ET VSffi UK 3ET of!?5t ^raPH 7 II H ^ ^vjvj [mudaie] 

At m Ttt H y^ HH HVI^H 7 frB ftfe>»f for Ulfo ^rfl>^ II H 8 ^PO [sevie] 



14 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



uh nraon^t Wore wftiw?^ Hfe ajfe fHfow »ry m^fenr ll H 8 W [milie] 

(Vfi-T frrfow iffe IT^W (Vfi-T Hf?5>^ W Ufe ll H 3 P33 [milie] [manie] 

The normal reading in all such cases is with long [I]. Even the most professional 
granthis follow this rhythm, especially in Akhand Path. The diphthong [ie] follows the 
phonological pattern of the language of the sixteenth century. 

i/e 

ftT Hfddld ft?fc ft fs3 Ufe ftnt fe? wfe II H 3 €u [ji] 

ft Ufe ufe oflt 3U¥ W^ fttS ?> ftfe»F rffe II H 3 £u [je] 

haumY krm kmwvdy jmfMfu lgY iqn Awie ] ij siqguru syvin sy 
aubry hir syql ilv lwie ] 1 ] mn ry gurmuiK nwmu iDAwie ] 
Duir pUrib krqY iliKAw iqnw gurmiq nwim smwie ] 1 ] rhwau ] 
ivxu siqgur prqliq n Awvel nwim n lwgo Bwau ] supnY suKu n 
pwvel duK mih svY smwie ] 2 ] jy hir hir klcY bhuqu locIAY 
ikrqu n myitAw jwie ] m 3 65 

ft ufe drfe fttfrefar fft f%sfk oraftj ?> wfe ll h u «\3y [si] 
ftM eiw $h 3H ft fefufe gd wwfe h h h =i3ii [se] 

ijMn@I cwiKAw pRym rsu ft iqRpiq rhy AwGwie ] Awpu iqAwig 
ibnql krih lyhu pRBU liV lwie ] jo hir kMiq imlwelAw is 
ivCuiV kqih n jwie ] pRB ivxu dUjw ko nhl nwnk hir srxwie ] 
AsU suKI vsMdIAw ijnw mieAw hir rwie ] 8 ] m 5 135 

m off frwuftr fft ^yun'ft 11 h u p£3 [si] 

m off faH^fa ft Htf^Tft II H ll p£3 [se] 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 15 



pRB kau ismrih sy DnvMqy ] pRB kau ismrih sy piqvMqy ] pRB 
kau ismrih sy jn prvwn ] pRB kau ismrih sy purK pRDwn ] pRB 
kau ismrih is bymuhqwjy ] pRB kau ismrih is srb ky rwjy ] 
m 5 263 

Phonologically there is no short vowel in the final position. However, for a correct 
enunciation, one has to follow this phonetic realisation in a large number of enunciative 
contexts : si/se, ji/je, ta/ta, na/na. 

M WffooT M WffccT oraftl ufe vjff fft 3y ^njftr flVffa ilttB 1 II H 8 <W [anik] [anik] 

3t »f3eT 33 Wf^oT vrsftr SU ftiMz WH3 fft otfe forfW t(3 d73H oT^S 1 II H 8 «W 
[anek] [anek] 

fHH3^ FPH ton y^5 fHHWH fef HOT ffclH ' dlm fftf II H V| tlO [bisaris] 

foff HOT ^H 1 ^ fcHtf (-Kit ^^tw dli^d vp?^ UH^ II H H to [besarie] 

qyry ben AnUp Apwr sMqn AwDwr bwxl blcwrlAY jlau ] ismrq 
sws igrws pUrn ibsuAws ikau mnhu ibswrlAY jlau ] ikau mnhu 
byswrlAY inmK nhl twrlAY guxvMq pRwn hmwry ] mn bWCq PI dyq 
hY suAwml jIA kl ibrQw swry ] m 5 8 

yf ^ftl Hfddld vpfw HSt* Hfo fH rt ' ^fett T ll H 3 TO [milawania] 

<TO5T TiM ^H Hft »Bfe 3M HWt ufe H?5^fe»T II H 3 TO [melawania] 

pUrY Bwig siqguru pwieAw sbdy myil imlwvixAw ] 5 ] qUM 
dieAwlu sdw suKdwqw ] qUM Awpy myilih gurmuiK jwqw ] qUM 
Awpy dyvih nwmu vfwel nwim rqy suKu pwvixAw ] 6 ] sdw sdw 
swey quDu swlwhl ] gurmuiK jwqw dUjw ko nwhl ] eyksu isau 
mnu rihAw smwey min mMinAY mnih imlwvixAw ] 7 ] gurmuiK 
hovY so swlwhy ] swey Twkur vyprvwhy ] nwnk nwmu vsY mn 
AMqir gur sbdl hir mylwvixAw ] m 3 122 

M56T oft tft^r offo foravr ^tR cVH II H vj «*33 [benatla] 



16 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



<TOcT oft tS^t y^ Uftj foOF offo 3^TTO 3*M\ II HU to [benatl] 

»ry fenrftr fe>3t ofdftr $u uf wfe wfe 11 h y <*3u [binti] 

ofdf fclM' H 1 ?? fenraTf II H II tftf [binatl] 



e/e 

^Hd" ^ [(Wld^F Hf of£ t^cSO ' d II jrfH H^H fHHdH UUftl ?TOof SdH WTd" II <\ II yf^t 
II ^W W3* £^ !f H¥ off t^<W'd II ^§ §fe ?J WWZ\ ym&3 3d" ^d" II tWd HE 
rlkcVJ'd' II H y pyp [dewanhar] [denhar] 

h fef oft h »ry % »r0 11 gftr fwsy faf ?> fpy 11 h y ^op [ape] [ape] 

3d" 3^ f%fo nffK? ?Hf§t nffi^J ylw^fenr ll H 3 «Wf [pane] [pane] 

ffiW ffiW ot feftfey 3t£ II H y 3Pt [ke] 

3J3" t S^fc dt d^H oT d^fdT II H y <\3? [ke] 
ufe ct Bd7^ ftpdf wt II H y PP8 [ke] 

§h yfe t fy^frr fraj tflt 11 h y PP8 [ke] 

H?? ^ Hfddld fTTf fo? Wfe II H 3 it [mere] 

HTfenr Hd/ >Jt yfe dffrr nry- ^dfa ^&$ ||H3 £p [mere] 

dfo W5 fe ftWd; tfd" ^t II H 8 tf y [mere] 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 17 



Ufe Ufe ofgr flf nfc gi^ || H 9 tfu [mere] 

hir jn sMq imlhu myry Bwel ] myrw hir pRBu dshu mY BuK 
lgwel ] myrl srDw pUir jgjlvn dwqy imil hir drsin mnu BIjY 
jlau ] 1 ] imil sqsMig boll hir bwxl ] hir hir kQw myrY min 
Bwxl ] hir hir AMimRqu hir min BwvY imil siqgur AMimRqu 
pIjY jlau ] m 4 95 

WO ^tffrr ftwfew? yd 3J^ ddd'fd ll H 3 £t [pure] 

yt Trafe W^M frlH 5 1 >fe ?> U'd'^'d ll H 3 £t [pure] 

ibnu shjY sBu AMDu hY mwieAw mohu gubwru ] shjy hi soJI pel 
scY sbid Apwir ] Awpy bKis imlwieAnu pUry gur krqwir ] 8 ] 
shjy Aidstu pCwxIAY inrBau joiq inrMkwru ] sBnw jIAw kw 
ieku dwqw joql joiq imlwvxhwru ] pUrY sbid slwhIAY ijs dw 
AMqu n pwrwvwru ] m 3 6 8 

HU# arf^nr Wfs yf fS5 HU# oTHctf Wfe ll H 3 &z [sehje] [sehje] 

Bwel ry gur ibnu shju n hoie ] sbdY hi qy shju aUpjY hir 
pwieAw scu soie ] 1 ] rhwau ] shjy gwivAw Qwie pvY ibnu 
shjY kQnl bwid ] shjy hi Bgiq aUpjY shij ipAwir bYrwig ] 
shjY hi qy suK swiq hoie ibnu shjY jlvxu bwid ] 2 ] m 3 
68 

yfeH east H 753t ftt oft fcdTW Hfe II H U ^33 [lage] 
t^TO HU 1 ^ ^^fFTfettuf^HfellHy «\38 [lage] 

fa?> naf* fraj tjtftw fet w^ytr £ aret tnfe ii hh£ cvy ftiw^l^ 

HH^ H% HHrfe II H 3 €? [sabde] [sabde] 

H# H^fe ufe §UH H^ HB 1 ;v§ II H 3 £tf [sace] [sace] 



1 8 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



fevjfe nwnfe gfr foe nfefo §w?> 3 »ra fot n h u 3«w [rahe] 

yt H^fe H3" H?t U^t ufo ?W stf mvfe ll H 3 £tf [rahe] 

m »w£ faf auftr m^fe ii h vj pt:£ [apne] 
yfe" wait flft of^t efe II H vj pt:£ [apne] 
H'VJHfdl H^ vraH 1 ^ II H Vj pp=\ [jane] 
mf H^ H^ g^t II H vj pp=\ [jane] 

u/o 

H WTfewF H BOTt WfHf H djf okH'd II H «\ £3 [jo] [so] [su] 
flfeHH^H <^2l'dl' II flfeHH^H W?fe HW II H V) 33t [jo] [so] [su] 

h w ufo <th wM m tit # wet w§Hfe ^ g^£ 11 [so] [jo] 

H W ufo <7H WM m tit tJ Hft oft feH?T H¥ ftT dl^ II H VI tztf [so] [ju] 

vrait ajvfw hu^ it >nt 11 h vj ptfvj [gupal] 

3RTW e'tied' efa efe»FW II H vj ptfvj [gopal] 

H^ Hd'dlfe fF Hfddjd At dJ3" oT wffe H>rel>tf II dJ3" HW ti^F 3 1 Hff d^t WU 1 ?W HH^ 
II ?TOoT oHHfe (VU ftiwt fFUfeotdJ^H^II^IIHTVT^^dJH^tftf WRI^ ?^fe Hiwt || 

nfftjfcfrr ^far d^nt tftf dra irae ?£\w3 11 dra hw ^te 1 ^ ufti h^ fe^ feftr ftrag fawt 

II H 1 ETfi Hd'dlfe HE 1 3fol 3^ H 1 ^ JVfK ftwt II Wj£ dj^ ft+fo ^M wffK? dRllw efw 

>ffo fc^t ii ?^ot omfe ufo ^ vrfenr hst$ etf f%H^ 11 p ii oPHfe fcra^r ^wt tft§ 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 19 



Hrfenr Hfu fimru ii fst ffe waft tflf ffe yst ffe»ru 11 f?; fc^ ajUHfe h^ hw ash 

?) U'U II 31U HW fit Hfe HWt f%W <jf& W$ II «Tfe oT ?PH fet ^TT 1 ^ W oft HfaPU II 
M56T oFHfe HUfft HWSt frIH WW (VH WFU II 3 II fHW HU vfe^ rftf 3g fa?> wt feH^ 

ii h M ?5te ?> »pf tflfgf ws V5t ii vj^ % <? ^t huTw <pf fSG fviu fef jw 
vre^ ii aju »r# druf feM ft aju ^t fftf fnt fef ftftrelw ii wvf ftfe ws" Htre'H 1 
wflr fi-rfw urfu »r£ h ?toot cmfe He 1 yo'dife <^ ftiu hu ^ h>£ 11 a 11 3 11 aif^t 

HUW 3 II of'Hfe ufe Ufa ijtft rflf ufe oT HUfft H^S" II H?> HUfc Hfe slwf rftf ffw 
HUfft HH 1 ^ II ffw HUfft HH^ oPHfe ^f vp£ 3JUH3t UdJ W5" II feu HUfa ffe 3Hfe 

gfe»r 3tw 3^t vnvr oth^ ii ajuyftf 33Tfe fe huh gfe fvjft fe?> garat % ?> h^ ii 
?^ot omfe fiiufe fviwut feuu »ru 3i^ ii *\ ii omfe feu irfewr rflf aju t ^fe 
fewu ii ffe Hfe W3\ ftlf wsfe ffe vnu ii nfefe ffe vnu ftraffi fvronu wfe tw 

fe^U II Mfefe HUW feu U't oPHfe 31UH3t ^lu^ II Mfftj? <7H vft»F feft g^t Hfw Iffe 
fe^t II ?TOoT Hfe feftt Hd'dlfe 3JU oT Ufe WVPU II H VI P88-38VJ 
[suhagan] [sohagan] [suhagan] [sohagan] 

Ufe VJf HU HH3W Ufe W&J W§ H ^H II H 8 Pt [babula] 

Ufe WH UT-f HU HliW feu fkfe VT?^ %W ^vM II H 8 Pt: [babola] 

Ufe Hfe H^ ftt WUW Ufe H?j fHfe HV HUUt II £feat Ufe rrfU HUWt fefe H'ddd 
viut HU^t II H 8 Pt [babula] [suhadl] [sohadl] 

Ufe Hfe Hfe HU W^W Ufe W5 fkfe t% HU^t II H 8 Pt [babola] [so/uhadl] 

The two enunciations are the same except for the two words, «■««■ / «■««■ [babula] 

[babola] and yotfl / HUUt [suhadl] [so/uhadl] . . . After [suhadl] and [sohadl], the scribe 

probably could not make up his mind and put both [u] and [o] on the same letter, 
HUet . The same is true of several other words, HUE 1 , f»f^, Hrt'd 1 , djfVw, ^VTH, ^VfW, 

^o'dife, woe el, 3fe where the scribe seems to hesitate between [u] and [o]. As far as 

the reader is concerned, he just has to pronounce one vowel or the other. He cannot 
simultaneously articulate both. 



20 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



#>rg u»f Ht wzw aray£ ufe yiw 11 wftiw?? voto offenr ara ftwre u€f gwfenr 

II gfe»F 3J^ ftlW?> vtffo 1 fHftfw ufe dB?> i^W WIF II U§H U3T 3Tfe»F tW W »Ty 

ywu iraHfe tnr 11 mora yufe ^f irfenr wfwHt ?r o^ Ht ?^ fpfw 11 #w unr h3 
gw aray£ ufe irfenr 11 p ii ufe Hfe h^ h^ sw ufe h?^ fnfo h% guet 11 iko?§ 
ufe frfir Hdwt f%fo H'dd3 t^t Huut ii H'ddS fefo trat Huet fafc ikodl ?w hh^wf II 
Hf HsjCttG frw fev ^ arayftr ftw h?> fafe uw ^fwr 11 ufe fe h?f fnfo orw 
Hfw ^f irfw yw yme\ 11 ufe Hfe Hfe tit hw ufe h?^ fnfo h% HUi?t ii 3 ii ufe 

yf H^ HW ufe t^I Pt: [babula] [babola] [babula] [suhadl] [sohadl] 

[sohadl] [babola] [so/uhadl] [babula] 

ufe Hfe Hfe H^ 3W Ufe W5 M& H% HTOt II H 8 Pt: [so/uhadl] 



W HU5 7 HUH Htf fHH HtfH tu^U II H U =\3H 



[so/uhada] 



f^ fe?> unr t»r$ f^ Hfa ^fw i^fenr 11 h «\ ph [do/uale] 

FFH 1 st^ orak HWU 1 y3 3ra ^ 3Tfe VSt II H 3 £p [jo/ulaha] 

y^l3 3^ »FUftl 3|fw <W5oT jfe H3^ II H U PU8 [go/ubid] 

l^t dl'^cSd'd 3RPW II H U 3t3 [go/upal] 



H'UHPdl fwfe 3Hftr 3P4W II H U ^tf O 



[go/upala] 



§g ujfo ujfo uf faf u?j riO'dlfe 

§H JVfe yg H^ §H # fi£^ wfw II H 8 303 [do/uhagan] 

rret Hd'dlfe ?TOoT H 3^t ddd'fd ut II H H 800 [so/uhagan] 

Hf HTftm HPddjy t^fr^^ftf^ftfHtHF feret II H 8 30P [lo/ukal] 

t tfl»T f?>HH WH fftl <7Ut II ofHfe 330 [to/uhe] 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 21 

^tj im HrPW oPftT ?> fet 31?> II ufe ofldd6 WW (V>dtJM ^ q?> II H U 3tft: 

[gano/u] [tano/u] 

ufe f>^ <*>d'fe£ MW HTsgf y^ 1 II H U 8U8 [manortho/u] 
H^fe ijfenr ftW H^TF ll HU 3t:3 [so/uhela] 

e/eh/we 

arayftr 33Tfe ufe ?tfH HHTg- || h 3 ^O [smae] 
3JU ira? HW H?^ }ffa H>fftr II H 3 ^O [smahe] 
3J3 - H^fc TWt f# ufe M II H 3 ^O [smawe] 

w^m wfaiwft wft if$ ii h 3 <\£o [pae] 
33" are nt^or ofb-rfe ?Kr irftr ii h 3 ^o [pahe] 
?W »(ftfg H^t Fl?> U># II H ^ =ptf [pawe] 

e/eh 

fr 3g gi^ftr 3 1 otdfe fafH 1 fiM ?re ^h^Hj ii fr 3g gif ^ *J3lu o?^ y^r ^tr 

ofU^ftr II H «\ <\8U [paweh] [pawe] 

W 3^ ^fTT offafa d 1 ^ feu H?> oflt i^H 7 II H «\ <WH [kljeh] [klje] 

3J^ 3P# Wfe fcfe tTOft II H U ^Otf [gawe] 



22 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

wfe 313 W^fu Tft ft^HW HU^ JVfK HH 1 ^ II H 3 £tf [gaweh] 

OTSt W# 3 1 HUW IP# II H 3 33^ [pawe] 

fa?> ufe ^Tfe oRF fefe iT^ftr II H U PU8 [paweh] 

H foff fent H3" >pfa HHW ll H 3 «Wtf [wisre] 

f r^Hdfd 3fe ut Hfe fpf II H 3 «Wtf [wisreh] 

jfe wfc flO ufe (Vf II H U «\t3 [jape] 

W?fe?> tWftj ufe H^RT^t II H 3 «*£? [japeh] 

faff HW traj etflWF fet HffHtF ff 3ist trfe ll H 3 £p [phire] 

wf&W f$ ftw fegftj HH^ 7> ?# H^fe ll H 3 £p [phireh] 



I/ih 



Wf tlQd'Hl fttW wfU WIS 1 ** II H 3 TO [corasl] 

Wf -dQd'Hld 33Ht* fe3 fa?> 3M t£ iflt II H 3 3t [coraslh] 



i/'i e/'e echo of the final syllable, tone tail, the move from one syllable to two 
syllables ... 



Ufe ^SH ora^t £ grfk t II H 8 ^iU [de] one syllable 

^^ Ufe q^ tnfc £fe cffo #3T fmw II H 8 &l [de'e] two syllables 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 23 



uft <^h ^irju tar frrf A wfir sfews ufe £fr II H 8 ^vj [dehe] 

H'UHPdl VRH ^fe at ^ II H vj PP^ [kare] two syllables 

<TOcT frl?> Uf wfU cftfe II H VI PP3 [kare'e] three syllables 

<TOcT ^ oft 33Tfe oft^T II H V| ppo [kareh] 

wfcof #3T fefw ot oft II H V) pptf [kare] 

f ^fe 33Tfe ofgftj fe?> ^3t ufefflfttHF tlffe II H 3 38 [kareh] 

»rfe are£ shu" ii twfc ura£ wra ii Hfcara£ wra ii gt ura^^ wra ii h vj p^p 
[gur'e] [gur'e] [satgur'e] [gurdev'e] 

^UTJU^ uftr &fe fc^ II H vj =\t:3 [le'e] 

?TOof fa^H 1 otfe ?> tfe II H vj =\t:vi [he'e] 

375^ 3*^ £ftf HUt fETT q?> foff lflg£ II [tir'e] 

dl^d ?TC ?feWH SW HU¥ d]^ 33yg# || H V| P8P [parpur'e] 

dra" oT 3B?> tfl»f of Hfol II H 8 ^PP [jT'T] transcribed as /'ji/ , echo of the last syllable 

§$T fau^t §H ^H ot ^3J II H vj ^tft: [bikh'T] 

uft vjrfem^T ^^c) i dn«1 At fff^ fe? t T^T Hfo UH tftf II H8 «U>3 [wadpagl'I] 

H^T Vffe»ra ft^H f»f H3W HU¥ HH^ £oT §tt II H vj pop [pua] 

3 1 f Hftr H§ Ufe ttffw II H vj <\?£ [sou] 



24 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



331Sfi dft 3^ ufe H?> ^ % yf forayw II H U POP [hohu] 
Consonant cluster with [ r ] 

m 3?> nraO farw iralfe 11 h y PP8 [pant] 

Hfi Hftr ytfe fcSdrlcS S3H II H U PP8 [prlt] 

drfe fcrair ^^ ire? win 11 h y =103 [kirpa] 

ufe tfl§ fgfyr ora? 3Jf tift? tffi fiW ufe q?> yt tfl§ II H 8 tf 8 [kripa] 

foray 1 foftr foray 1 ?? fwif 11 h y «\t3 [kh-pai] 

h^ fgww ufenra atfWe II H y «\t3 [kripal] 

oraH rraH fiH S3 yFF II H y «Vf tf [karam] 

H?> W gfH atf^e WW II H y *\tP [kram] 

H3TW fgfW Hftr §3H fc7m»F II H U p££ [kria] [kiria] 

few ?PH fw 3?> WI II Hftr »T^ 3 1 oT [birtha] 

traafy ii fa?> fa>rafi fe?> tfo fw fwfe 11 h y p£tf [britha] 

frIH ydH'ft! fit ffiftl iPHf II H y W [parsad] 
fan yilTfe H^W frraoT oP^t II H y W [prasad] 
fetf H3T3 ggfK fwfw II H ^ PP [parm] 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 25 



frrfft ffH WW H^ftT irfWF II H *\ PP [pram] 

H3^ra t fy^frw faftft rran tfrra 11 h ^ sx: [sarb] 

HH H^Pd" 3HW dH H3 ^ft H¥ tTH II H U ^33 [srab] 

There are four forms of \TS^, the reader has to follow all these variations. 

»Bfe WUfe WS^ UWfi\ H yf fofe ft »rt II H U PP [paranl] 

ftftof Hoffe 3^ 3H IPftf fel fHftr ^ H yftt II H tf PPO [pranl] 

arayfk cVH Fn-rfe y^st ^ ufe wfe\ ii h u pp [parani] 

^d 7 ¥W ft iJ^t yst »rff U§ ofd^d 7 II H U pp [pranl] 

T^^W^ iJ^t yst »rf U§ a(&W ll yd 7 Hfddld oraf ft ftfW fafe ft^ HH tfew II 

iran d^fe hh yorafrr g^ 3¥ fw twi o?§fe ii ort ftftor fH uut wz\ wfa H^ft wu^t 
3fe ii 3 ii ^ft uut tfe t ^H'fdw 1 ftisr fay m ym wftiw? ii yfe owfe Hftr wfc»F 
siiH'fW fti3T nfefe wufe fe 1 ?? ii nfefe wufe w^ft iravft h yi fefe ft wt n H'UHdife 
faf t% ft ofor wMwul ii [HdHcSO'd fwfenr HWKt feor fftHtr ft wt ftiwft ii 

o(U FPftoT yst 3lH iJUt fey Htl WT wftlWft II 3 II eft uut tfe t ^H'fW fti3* fcft 

ftt npfw Hfe ii arayftr fty mpfo f ^iH'fd^r ft^ 3d 7 ed^ra 3wt ufe ii ajdyftf mj 
Hipfo ire 1 ^ m?3 hu pp 



Cluster with [ r ] and syllable division 

In the following examples the cluster with [ r ] is invariably simplified. Instead of 
[a'mrif], we have [am'rif]; instead of [du'krit], [su'krit], [sa'mrath], the usual rendering 
by even the most professional granthis is [duk'rit], [suk'rit], [sam'rath]. 



26 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



Ufe WffH? 153 1 MmF ufe gife»F tfl§ II H 8 ^3 [a'mrit] 

Hfew JTOB fHfKfe #5" II H ^ 3 [si'mrit] 

fiffyfe H T HB Ufe^ HfVMllH^ «W8 [si'mrit] 

H3" HUH?) »r£ ^fH W II H U ^tltf [su'prasan] 

efgT5 HfgTH H^ TOTf HdlM'£' II H y m [du'krit] [su'krit] 

HtT fsmj lffe»fT gr^ gpfe II HH ft+fcttF M U3t wfe II H U =\t:tf [bi'sram] 

H^r ^ UJ3 ^fefe Ht* ofrfenr oftH fWH 1 II H <* <WU [mu'dra] 

uh Hajftr fey ij^jfe fH^rftmr ii h «\ pp^ [sa'greh] 

fH oft tTOt 3 1 oft oF3t W of§ H'UHdlfd fyjj'H 1 II WJ POt: [bi'swas] 
H HHH fetT ufe ft B 1 ^ II oTHfo 330 [sa'mrath] 



The presence or absence of the marker of nasalisation, tippi, is a frequent 
variation that makes the correct articulation of the text an extremely difficult task. 
Before a nasal consonant, the marker of nasalisation is redundant, the marker here could 
be to note the intonational stress on the syllable to follow the rhythm of the musical 
composition. 

q?> % frlH 1 mWSSqSWH tWft fafc 3Jf fffenr wfs II H 8 3^0 
[tan tan] [tan tan] [tan tan] 

tf?> ET?> 3M (WJof Wi cfo 1 f^B" fi-ffow 3ct Hfe H3T H3TC} II H 8 °[£? [tan tan] 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 27 

ET?> TJ§ f& H£W HPddjy oftfH3Uf^uf^?Wfrflruf^Hy iJ^W II H 8 <*££ [tan tan] 

U§H iaj 3Tfw Htf iffenr q$ % 3Jf ufe ^fw ll H 8 ^PP [tan tan] 

offo H^ »M y?> ?3* d II offe &Qd y?> ^3* 3" II H 8 W [pun] [pun] 

?TOoT £§ ?FH 13§ H?> ttfefe 3J3" irawt V^fettF ll H 3 ^PO [man] 

Uf W^\ tftf ^t ^H JVK Hfe ^H'^fe^F II H 3 ^PO [man] 
ftF H^ H?> Hfo HHW II H 3 ^PO [man] with additional [u] 

fefc Hfe &\s\ H¥ »T^ rFSt II H 3 ^PO [man] with additional [i] 

Uf ^Ut tfl§ ^t 3tfw 313 3F€fewr II [gobld] 

aTfa? Urfw o^ fe? ^3t 3ffw 313 irafe Hi'^few II H 3 •p** [gobid] [gobid] [gobid] 

MS Pdd^Q ddi'dPlW fu of^W fydlH'd II U313 3$ Wl^U 3jftfe JTOcT jfe H3^ II «\ II 
U§3t II ^W tt& ofHff 3J^ WW II qfc qfc §»F fcfi HH3T H^W II B^ ^3 €U fefa ffk 
»Ffe§ II 3St fgOF 3H S3H?) lFfe§ II U 1 ^ few fdrtPHG H3" ^»F II H'UHPdl H?> fcdHW 
^»F II ftfe PdH'dl £oT P^H^d' II ftW ftT»M Mffl?> frRT $3* II PP II Hfe II S'Ht Htew H?> 

Htft g? atfw 3j?^ wfs ii >M feuiF ora^ m jtoot b^ sr^fe ii h y PU8 
[go/ubld] [gobid] 

gift? 3Ffe»r Fra jwfenr gst y^?^ ww ii 3fk h 7 ?? hu f%sra H3T$ uf t nfc ^Iw ii 
fac-^rfe ?toot few 1st H5 1 ufe ufe ftmre^ ii 3 ii efo ^rrfti wjuh ^h aw ii uife 

Uffe ufe gtftf 3FH d^H II 3lf%^ 3FH H^ fWH »OTH »rafaf f^ 1 II H U UPt 
[gobid] [gobid] [govid] 

On page 173 we have diPst: 1 six times and affetT three times. On page 174 diPst; 1 
appears sixteen times and dlPet! 1 six times. For even an approximately correct 
pronunciation, one has to read the text very slowly and very carefully. 



28 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



3?> huh yd'fdiw 1 At ulf^ ufo h^u m &mz\ fftf 11 fe fw fnfo irfwr At alfe^ 

Ad 1 ufu Hf HH3 M fflf II ufu Wfe fHfo»F Hdlrlkrt At gtf^ H Hfa fed'il M rftf 
II P II H HJ5U fe Ad 7 ufu Uf Hfl3 H Hfo 3fc WV Mdl'^W fflf II uf ufu ft Hoff fH?> 

^ At yten h nfefu fnuu ufu w^r fflf 11 ufu uiw Au 1 Hfi^ fiiwu 1 uju A$ Au 1 
m rite'«W fflf 11 At nfo sfc wr yuT»r At gtf^ ufu Mmp nfo ^tn^r tflf 11 
3 ii ^ At atflt^ ^t At fifwfw uf 3g feefewu ne ^t fftf 11 At nfo sfc tfy 

fHUH oT At 3lf^T uf^ ytft gry ^j^r^t tftf II Hfddjd f%H3 Afo At gtf^r Ufu H$ orfu 
UH'Ut fflf II ufu ftH ^fw orfu irfw At glf^ Hft ftW HUfe 3H^t fflf II 8 II 3 II 

ptf ii £? ii aif^t h 1 ? huw 8 ii unt At gtfW^ ufft At fy^Ffunr ufu yj" Au 1 uht fftf 11 
ufu wh on?> firfe^ 1 At 3uW gfe »n£f gtut ynt rftf ii ufu »ry h^ uj3 fure* j^ 
afft?^ »p0 uhTw 1 tuft fflf 11 ufu gfrs ?* fTsst At afft?^ »ry nfeara fM fflf 11 
«\ 11 wO frare fu 1 ^ 1 At gtf^r ^fe »rflr 3t hu uuft fflf 11 tav tar turfed At 
utf^r fefe ftaift feufn &ur &uft fflf 11 wO frare fyfe^ 1 At 3mW ufu s^ #t h^ 
Haft rflf 11 ^aiH 1 (¥H wru u At gtff^ ufu era 1 Agrfn ufu uaft fftf h p h ufu »p0 

3UTfe oWfe**' At Ulfif^ ufu 331^ fiU Hfo yut fflf II »p0 Hfo Hfo <^ddtf' At Blf^ 
df% dfo»F ("Kft ftt rftf II Ufe nfefe gruf^ wflr t At 3^%^ ufe wflr dfw 1 33yut 

fftf 11 ufe W3H d^y iJHrfenr At if^T ^ %^ »rflr uftt rftf 11 3 11 ufe nBfe ?w 
yfl t At atf^r ufd - »rfu ^rr^ fef ^# rftf 11 ufe nBfe <th fiw 1 ^ t At atf^ 

lid" HWt Ufe yf 3Prt rflf II W} Hdfe U^'fet! 1 At gtffe 1 ufe ^13 H?T d^y Wrt «U>8 

One of the most frequent words, [anad], has similarly several forms, with or without 
nasalisation, with or without a long vowel. 

WTC Htf t^^ Ufd" 6W HSH fsf3W H^W Htd 7 II H y P08 [anad] 

Htf HUH »T^ fHHH II H U P^O [anad] 

>M?)^ fa?^ #H 3H^ 3H ^t H fe 7 fftf II H U ^OO [anad] 

HUH ftTW?ft t urfu H5 1 »I^ II H U PP3 [anad] 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 29 



On pages 457 and 458 we have >XfttJ once, »FfttJ twice, and ttffttJ thrice : 

3U ydlcJ'fbtf 1 II yfe" wfU ftt£ H>ffe HUftT H^fe 3UB oFUH H^U^F II »ITO ufetlHHU 7 
H3TW HUH ftf r^H'fd^F II UH3oFU yUFH UU fcH ^ 3U f^HcJ'fe^r II ftft? ufettfu UUS 

hu 3urfe ^sw ufu fautr nrflr ^vfw ii 8 ii 3 ii £ ii ww hujf ti h feu H3ft hu^t hu 

ft WW$ II fF t fujfu ufu ?FU H H^ ut U*?£ II nffewft »ff%UI3 H Uf H^ ft^Sft fftU>W 

ii ftu ffu He 1 u§fu ftw ^u fen yuft He h^ ii tpftufe mfe Hfe w % fy»r ytfe 
ytey ww$ ii ftft? ^trt aju sufft frt feu H3ft hu^t hu ft w&* ii «\ ii rF off u^ 

33^ 3 1 ot >M75f UJ^r || gipf^ h 7 ftfa H3 1 yfe S^ II >FS HU? offWFS ufu HH HfUT 

huh?> h yf ii huh fnfa ft? fftftr fe? farfu ftut f?F Hf off ii Hyu Hftt fiiufu >Fftt 
feu hu^t ^ of h^ ii ftft? ^tnt m nufft frt fF ot ^h ^s 1 ! ^ it wre ui^ ii p ii 

»F§ Htft fe tpfH H? 1 WUft^f II tftH§ UUS tftpfu »FU fewuftw II 3ftT »Fy fnt H^y 
»Fy ftU H'i'ylm II HUfe 3TUtH >Ffft fttH ofU H Hy iFHtw II offu WK ^7% 3ftT f^Ht 
ofU Hfe feft ufe tFUftw II ftft? ^tft 3JU HUfft fF§ »F§ Htft fe tpfH H^ 1 WUFW II 
3 II W it HHHfof 5^T ft? H^ 1 wfe»F II 3 1 oft yUft »FH faft H'UHdJ lFfe»F II H'UHfdl 
ufu it ufUT 3tfw fHHUS wfui»F II 3UH HU feoFU frF H3TW feftfa fe»Fful»F II Hfft 
H% HUH H^f f^ »(fte H3TW d]S 3Ffe»F II ftft? ^F§ 3JU gufc H^ W t HH^fof 
^^T fH H^ 1 wfe»F II 8 II 8 II P II nFHf HUW U || HR^ II ufe ufu ?FH fP4fe»F ofg ft 
oft HHoFW II ?Fftof Hft 3ft Htft Ufe >>© fHt 3P-FW II °[ II 53 II fw?5§ H3ft it H^T H?U 
§CFfu ^U II faftf ofuf ofUHfeufuufu?FH^U II ufu?FH }F3Ft BU^ W^rf H>ft 

fenFarf hh sfe»F ii of3f ft q^f Hufe tF?§ ora^ h m offu HfenF ii hh^h nrere 

WFU fftUHW HSU HWHt faftf ^U II ofU Hfe FFftof U^ft H'f W^H HUS fft^fu ^U II 
*\ II WJUnit Hfeutft fftUdJft >X?F§ ftfe II Hft offtU aWUtft fwmJS HU oftf II Hff ^UH 
ofUH »RJ HHH 7 HUS utfe ft >>F^ II sfftS 7 fafte >XftU H^WF nfftTWft^ fit[3^ II 
ftfH H^ft ^t H|»F feft fftU 1 ^ HfUT Hfe II fafttfe ?Fftof WH M HUfe H'f U^ ftfe 
II P II 3UH HftH ntftof Hof3 HU 1 Hft II Wtffe ufu§ feu HfUT Htft #UT Hft II WH3 ^U 

nraift? »Ffe§ w y^HU cFfe§ h nra fe n 1 ^ y^ yu'ut huh Htr ufu ?Ffe§ ii urtfftu^ 

tf§" flfWU H? ^ off ft U»F Uft II HtT HUH »Ffte ?Fftof foftF §ut 3U ^fft II 3 II ftH 
W3\o( §CFU 5UI3U HH 1 of§ft II Hft otft tfUoFU ufu ufu HH HftU H^ft II Hfft H^ft Hftt 



w/b 



30 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



Hfc Hd^ JW f£ 3tf%^ 3$ WiH Hd^ H% fafc dT^ II H V) m [govid] 

v}h 6di0d1 irfe dlyfy atfw h?> flfw tfl§ ll H V) t«* [gobld] 

fHU 5d?> ^fenr atf^? ydi^'r«»F 11 [govid] 

vrai£ djvra ulfw ww? H'UHfdi itrfewr II H y 8£o [gobld] 

»r0 fc wy trfe h?> fcd*ra ut ara iraet ^tef 11 h 3 rz€ [wicar] 

W TOft tpfe gfe't II H «\ PP3 [bicare] 

foTHf%y W^IS d'<!£d'd' II H 3 TP [kilwikh] 
tffiH ffiW ot fcWfytr rPlfo II H VI ^08 [kilbikh] 
^sPdil ftw dW II H 8 V3 [wadpagi] 

fcdTW ?tfw m\ aS^gfl fcdTW ?TfK HU^fenr II H 3 P 1 ^ [badpagl] 

H U¥ oft ufe ofgr jftvf wfe fedf fHH Hit fed'dil II «\ II [wiragl] 

vju¥ dTdW >fe HH vrai^ ffe§ vravf dfrloT fgigft ll H vj po8 [beragl] 

iWTfc U^ VTd" ?TF HW ^H ^f rFfe II H «\ W [wasa] 

otfoTO U^ 1 Wffe W HuftT HW ^te 1 ! II H ^ W [basa] 

td" fedTT ft^ feu H?^ 3 II H vj pvjtf [wer wirod] 

td" fadTT cPH #VT Hd" II H vj p£p [ber birod] 

f%S H^ ft? tfc?t ("jrfe W5^ fTHt tffiH dT^fe II H 3 tP [win] 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 3 1 



W3H £f ytfrtf fo> HPddld f? ft wf? II H 3 tit: [bin] 
U3" ttl fc(VHl Hft Hftr $y ll H U <tff O [awinasl] 
§g tt fftofl ^fe»f II H U Po£ [abinasl] 

f%nw yfs f%H>f? y^st n ferore »rar?>t y^ftr f%s^i 11 h ^ sis [wismad] 

fHHHft fHHH ^ feH>re ll H y Ptzy [bismad] 

It is interesting to note that throughout Sukhmani of Guru Arjan, [b] dominates : 
ffo fagtT oPH #H HU II p£p [ber birod] 

■8BW ot ftj<r ^fefe SH II P^P [balua] 

£oT BH3 - oFufc fnyfe 31^t II P£t [bast] 

ws yte ggf w^e fwfrr ii p£t: [barte] 

fi-rfw oPH fy fycW'tt ll p£t: [bikral] 

Hfy - ^ ot HH UHft Wfi ll PPO [bakhane] 

yf Bfw ^ 67HW faaPH II PP 1 ^ [bigas] 
H^ oft HftjH 1 B^ft d7§?> yvft II PP 1 ^ [barne] 

mf iTO JTO -SS^\ II PP 1 ^ [badal] 

H^ it HfoT HftU^ t?> II PP°l [ben] 



32 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



l^^UK 7=nT f^e H^ II PPP 



[base] 



WU oft HftjH 1 ite 7i fPftftl II ^3T Hftfa 3^ HfaWjfa II PPP [bed] [bakhianeh] 



gUK ftlWftt oF H¥ i^Hnj II PP3 



gUK ftlW?>t ira?> iratT fytl'd 1 II PP3 



»rflr oft ymm at^t 11 ppp 



orau fife fw ffclQd ' d II PPP 



orau ufe w H3 ^ff ii ppp 



Uffe Uffe H?ft H^ ginst II PPtf 



fe ct fifecT ct§ hu 1 fepgr II PtlO 



?^oT fey?) ?> wff otfe ii Pt:^ 



wfe ollddrt o^W gin?) II Pt:^ 



ftTH ?> foOF oraftl y^si'dl II PtlP 



nt PdcS ' Hl uf h?^ Hftr ^tr ii Pt:P 



HW Hfe Hfe U¥ goBT II PtlU 



fHfttfH hto ite sfat ll Ptzt: 



[bad] 



SRJH faT»F?>t oF 5UH y^sl'dll IF&W II PP3 [badpagi] 



[bidata] 

[blcare] 

[biohar] 

[bad] 

[bakhanl] 

[bijog] 

[bigan] 

[bakhan] 

[badpage] 

[abinasl] 

[bakta] 
[bed blcare] 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 33 



ffiW WiH ot fotwfer Wfu II 3ttf [kilbikh] 

ufe dTJ iff few otfe II Ptztf [birla] 

nfor hu^ h nrt ?* stfe 11 h fg^st 3 1 faf ytfe 11 ^»r ot fara 3tefe aft n W5U otw 
wfsw tfar dH ii fer offo h^ wrfu yntfe 11 oro ?* »rt y^ ^tfe 11 ifo fagn cm fn hu 
ii f^ fgora HU 7 fe P^P 

H^ ot Hftl ft fEKW fP# II i^d^RJH WU fee 3H II ?TOof fqf H^ Hfc dH II £ II H^ ot 
HftT Hfif ufe 7T# II H'DHTdl ufe ot tt ^Ff II H^ ot H^T cT HcT 3 f^Tlt II H'UHfdl HdW 

(V>Hdd ii h^ it nfor wif yi Hte 7 ii h 1 ^ it nfor uffe uffe ^te 7 ii H'UHfdi 3£ »rftmrof^t II 

H'UHfdl 3Tfe 3^t UK^t II H^ it H^T fat H% d^T II M5of H^ §£ HR3T II P II FTP" oft 

("TOof STUH ftlW?>t oF ?Klt fe>TT II *-l II Mf fd\W&\ 3UK oF ^ II 3UK fawft £of jqfOT 
^ II gUH ftlWftt it Ufe »fftfe II SRJH ftlWftt oT fcdTW >fe II 3UH ftlWftt frlH oft yf 

»rflr ii sjuh ftiwft of g^ iran'y ii srjh ftiw?ft of sdrj y^'dd wz\w pps 

fe oT fiw d^tT 3 ul?> II fe or fiw 5tfi»r W Sfe II fe ot fft5of off Hd^ #BT II H3" ot 

fiw off hu 1 fcmar Ptzo 

ftftof fwi§ 7) wff otfe II ^ II fHHfe Hft Hfa offo 0>d°o!'d II offo H?> P3 Hfe ffclQd ' d 

fRW fiftH ot fewfetr frftr ii nrflr mra nreu 1 ?w fw 1 ^ ii h?53 ofu^ ^us mfe i^^u ii 

W3 f^ Hfe Uf^ ot (Vf II HUftT H^fe ?TOof 3H5 3Ff II ^ II 3H5 3P^^ M OddPH % II 

fa^fn frfe ufn ft¥ tw ii uftr nff^? h^ w (Vfe ptztf 

y^" oft feHfe HU 1 W Ufe II Ufe dH l^t fedW otfe II ft^ BTftf^F ^ W5 felJH 1 ^ II yd?? 

yd^r ?jut iw^ ii g^d - ^t $h dH d^ftr ii fijn w§ hht it h^t ii u3 Hdfe w hf fewftr 



34 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



WffooT d^H #3T Hfe»PSt II ufe d* ?W oft 67^ Hfe WE\ II SU #R?7 o!W Hdfe II dTKV fW^t 

ufe ufe ?fe ii ^fit h otdTft h^ Ti&is ii fadt sh y^ dra >fe 11 H'UHTdi m tfr fo^H 11 

Hd¥ gtf M56T Ud^FH II t || PO II Hfi? II Hd3fi5 f6ddJ6 fadcCd Hft HHTTt wfU II »n^ 

dfn^r (W>or wH ut fefe Frflr 11 *\ 11 WH£*ret n hh Wonf feu ots ?> feH^s 1 11 inv ifo 3B 
otu ^ u^ ii fra tput mi?* h?> HHitr 11 sa fto to feH nfor ooffe 11 rra fen or gg?j 

feu?> ?> fRJ^ II 3H Ud*f HdT 5TU fcmfa fe»R43 Ptfo 

It is also interesting to note that just a few pages later, from 317 to 323, the use of [w] 
in the compositions of Guru Arjan, is more frequent. Obviously, it is a case of two 
different linguistic registers. 

tf oraf?> (V>dld ?rtfi tefk fiwfe ire£ II 3V [wer] 

djdfetr nfefe nfeara ?u§ h fiw ?> fit h dra wft wt ii 3«u> [warte] 

ftT f%? Hfddld ot H?> H^ oTH dTd^ HtfeH^WiP? II 3 V [win] 

§ HBT Hrftm »ffe ?3T Tjfa ^^ f ^5 ?§ II 3V [wada] [wad wade] 

Ufa <7H ?orat JTOoF ^ste ' d l l U^f II 3^ [wadpagl] 

33Tfe ?gfi 3d 7 fedtT t tjftr tjfar ^ddt! 1 II 3<tff [wachal] [wartada] 

tt\W cfW ^fenr^F (WJcT H% ^fi-B" II 3^ [wadiala] 

fedU feg^r q^t faf M56T HUH d?fo II 3^tf [wichora] 

ftW H^H fdld'fH ?> f%Ht ufe (Wf nfe % || 3<^tf [wisre] 

M56T (Vfe P^H'Tdm Htf fo^UT ufe II 330 [wisarie] 

M56T Hfe ¥ferfw Hte 7 Ufd" oT <7§ II 3PO [wlcaria] 

% ?> Ufit tfHH ?tffi fife Hfe f%3j3 II 33^ [wigute] 

fHH djf #3 <W>c7 T ' feH Hfe ^fe»T Hfe II 33^ [wasia] 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 35 

3FWt fw fecF? M56T TJS\ f%fSl»F II 33^ [wikar] [wihunla] 
fcTBfof H% fWH ufc fHHdH atf% II 3P^ [kilwikh] 
0>dtJM ^ Hdlw % H3" f^STT II 33^ [winas] 
H'tlHdl faft iffenr HSt •t&sf'dl II 3PP [wadpage] 

#^ foW dTdfa FF ^3T gfe Ht> II H H 1 ^ fefc U'dddfH H fo?H fi Ht* II t§ dTdfo 0>dld 
?rfo crafK fiWFfe iJUt!' II HHHfe Hd^fw ft fedfa 3#£ II iff H^f offe»F feH ^W 
H6T^ II 3°l II HfidT H§ U || gjd - ?TOoT ufe ?FH fed'fiW ^5 UJ33 HHdlJ II yf H5 1 

ajufmr «fefe Hfeajf ?gf h fmr £ £§ h ara ynt »rt ii Hfedjd wt h oFd - ofH^fc h 

HU ofH^ftl ajdfatF dft UFff HU 1 W?S l^ II f%S Hfddjd ot UofH ftT ajdfatF ITHU; oTH 

old 'fern 1 ^ fen aidfrry fefe £fe ?? »rt ii ara Hfddjd wf or ntf wfe urt fen wff 
ajdfay ot^ drift ii fw 53ft »rt 53ft ffe frfe fen 3# arafay yfo ^ »rt 11 sruy ^te 1 ! 
mw »rftr HS't 11 far f%5 Hfedjd ot m h£ dry ofd^ h t% hu 1 sy i^t 11 p 11 yf^t 11 f 
hu 1 Hrftm nffe ^^ sftr H^f f ws *zi 3V 

faRT q?> Hf Uf%3 ufe ufe ot 31^ 3P^f II Ufe ?FH ^n^t ?TOoT ^sJ'dll U^f II P II uf^t 
II H3g^H§Wro§^ ^W II f HF Hftl ^ slddt! 1 HF >fftl HHW 3«\t 

u^ H^d - yrfl»r 3ut hu f w^fu Ms 11 t^for oflw ^fe»rsi»F ?^ot h% 
afw? 11 3 11 yfst 11 ufo g?> Hut din t fe^ f%g# fth 1 11 fen vftnifs sf'fedd fan £fe 

fTO II H?> 3?^ ^fefe HffWF Ufe d^T tW d^H 7 II H'UHTdl 313 ^FfenF H% #bRT tPH 1 
II ?TOof H^t tftf%MT frTfo fe? qS'H 1 II ^ II ITOoT HS H II wdfoF HU^^F 7W13W >XoT 
^fe II fadTT f^S3T qst fH§ M56T HUH 3ffe II «\ II H§ JJ II f^TT 1 ^ Hfo 3T^ Hfe % ?j 

Horftj yfe 11 tytr u^ wh 3 fnf 3HoTd" fufe gfe 11 P 11 uf^t 11 m fiw^ yf §5 t 
wrfewft Hfe»r 11 nfe nfe HuTnffe yfunr uife uife ufe ^fenr 11 f^ ??te h§" feor hh^ 

ofe UH^t gfeWF II Hte HtF H3 gftlU H% feH # Hfe»F II 3fH ?TO^ £t frIH ?TH fefc 

ufd" udj Hfenr 11 p 11 h&ot hs y 11 fkv h^h fdid'fH ?5 f%Ht ufu 7m >rf?> 7% 11 x% frr 

HSt FTOoF ira?) H^t jfe II 3^ 



36 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



ftst ftf%U tfl»lt ^H 1 BUfife II foR5f%tr h% fen ufc faira^ atfWe II ui% HW H^ 
efw wM ara7% 11 h^w g»re nfk fefcwr ui% Hfc ^w 11 fawfe ?toot vg>lnt 

frrf?> fc3t fife II ^8 II HftoT H§ VJ II ^HTOftHtrFWoftH^H trfe II fenftj VB'Vffe 

?^ofT fiqn £ fofw »rfe 11 «ui hi u n hs^ ?wfek?fH# wrfu 11 fire tpff 
h?> fevelw ?^or HTfim ^fe ii 3 ii u§37 ii wu 1 ?rar Hftr ft vi^ftr fricf ufe vt?> u#r n 

tB^F ^§ ft rPSctf n# St »FH II 0>dtJM £c? H^fW % H3" f^S'H II Vf^RJH frIH f%Tlt 
feH faUH 1 HTT II drfo Wfs tfl? ufw <TOoT sfo rPH 33^ 



n/n 

H3TW W& Hfil Wffrp ^t II H V| p££ [banl] 

3M few 1 ^ Mffrp M H'St II H VI 33tf [banl] 

Mffrp ^fl 3H?T e^ II H vj 3tfv| [banl] 

dldy'il Htft W&tT 3P# II H vj 3tf £ [gurbanl] 

^ftf ^U foddJcS <W<Vb|' II H vj 3V|tf [nirgun] 

Hftj f(Sddl4 off yi% ofM Sfenr II H V| «\t3 [nirgun] 

wfU >X^vjt HsddlA UUH 7 II H vj 3tP [nirgun] 

H33I3 fAddli H 1 ^ <V§ II H vj 3tP [sargun] [nirgun] 

HW HW HUlw Hl% fHVlH 1 ^ Hf 9^7) WWt tfl§ II H vj =\o£ [caran] 

feH ggs Vftrat H §t H^ftl B 1 ^ II H vj ^CQ [caran] 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 37 



Between pages 187 and 203 33?> appears thirteen times, and 335 fifteen times. 
3J3 ot 335 fufo A3 >PH II HU ^tzP 

335 35 313 dft yftf W3ft II H U ^tzp 

feH t£ H^ ot 33?) II H JJ ^tztf 

33?) oTHW W3 T fa sidled 1 II H U =\tltf 

33?) 5W ot H T 3f3T CF^f II H U ^tf O 

335 oTHW 5W ffe EFfe II H ^ ^tf O 

3J3 ot 335 f33§ ^T^fe II H U °ltf O 

33?) of^W f33 >fef3 CT3 II H U ^tf <\ 

$R3 %$ Wg ot 33?) II H U ^tf <=\ 

3f3 ot 3^ ot 335 ftWHoCdd II H U ^ 

673 ?TOoT 3* oft 335t W3J II H U °ltf °l 

335 y?fe 3Wf3 3f3 H T 3f3T II H U ^ 

3J3 ot 335 f33 ffe wfa II H U <tff 3 

f333 33?> oTHW y^ IF3 II HU <tff 3 

33?) oTHW f333 §3 IF3T II H U =\tf 3 



38 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

33?> o?HW oft 3M fell HU <\£ 8 

13 ot 33S ftre ffe vrfe ii h y *\£& 

335 5THW H?7 Hftr VI3%T II H U 'tff 8 

m ot 33?> h?> h^ ftiw?> 11 h y <tffy 
33?> othw frrf waft vftfe 11 h y <tff £ 
ufe ot 335 ftrat ffe vrfe 11 h y <tff £ 
ufe ot 335 fed Hftr ^ ii h y ^tf p 
h?> 35 Htew 335 ufe ^§ ii h y «vf ;> 
335 othw ftj33 Hftr fry 11 h y ^tf p 

rT?> 33?> oTHW faf fft TW II HH ^tft 
33?> 5THW v]h 3313t ¥© II H y ^tft 

ufe ot 335 ftrat otfe €? ii h y <^f t 

337) o?^W ftj33 3Tf3 ?TOoT H VI P03 

oTOH oT^T3 fo»P?5U $tft II H y °[pt [sianap] 

"shs frwsu nraro ^w 11 h y vt [sianap] 
fenrftr Hmw faw>vp- 3H vp3suh r<woed 11 h y eoy 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 39 



fenrftr mm fawreyr w uuz yf fpfy 11 h y 8oy 

fa?> fang?) fe?> tft> fw fwfe II H y p£tf [simran] 

W oT fHHUfe Htf 3^ II H y 3«P [simran] 

E^Hfe sf ' d l JItS Hfe ^ ?W Hfi3 »rt Hfc if II H 8 8tf 3 [pag'hln] 

faft E3H?> Hfddld H3 y^T ft y^W 3 5TOte frfH H 1 ^ II H 8 8tf 3 [pag'hln] 

iW^H 3313 ire?'?) II H y «=itztf [parwan] 

ufe oft W3\fs WW y^W II H y ^tztf [parwan] 

hir kl Bgiq jnmu prvwxu ] gur ikrpw qy nwmu vKwxu ] 3 ] khu 
nwnk so jnu prvwnu ] jw kY irdY vsY Bgvwnu m 5 18 9 

y?> wp?t ^yu re ^te 11 h y «\tp [pran] 

tfl»T \P3 ?TOoT 3ET WPf II H U «^tP [pran] 

jIA pRwx nwnk guru ADwru ] 4 ] 3 8 ] 107 ] gauVI mhlw 5 ] ry 
mn myry qUM qw kau Awih ] jw kY aUxw kChU nwih ] 1 ] hir sw 
pRIqmu kir mn mlq ] pRwn ADwru rwKhu sd clq m 5 187 

oT^?> 31$ H 35" t 3P^f II H U <\X:2 [gun] 

are yw fwi ftiwft ?toot Frara um ii h y «^tp [gun] 

kvn gunu jo quJu 1Y gwvau ] kvn bol pwrbRhm rlJwvau ] 1 ] 

rhwau ] kvn su pUjw qyrl 

krau ] kvn su ibiD ijqu Bvjl qrau ] 2 ] kvn qpu ijqu qpIAw 

hoie ] kvnu su nwmu 

haumY mlu Koie ] 3 ] gux pUjw igAwn iDAwn nwnk sgl Gwl ] 



40 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

ijs kir ikrpw siqguru 
imlY dieAwl m 5 187 

era?) cfd'^A ora^ % II H U PP£ [karan karawan] 

eras oJW yf ^ t fHU <^ut £fe II Wl PP£ [karan karan] 

krx kwrx pRBu eyku hY dUsr nwhl koie ] nwnk iqsu bilhwrxY 
jil Qil mhlAil soie ] 1 ] 

Astpdl ] krn krwvn krnY jogu ] jo iqsu BwvY soel hogu ] iKn 
mih Qwip auQwpnhwrw m 5 27 6 

Hf ofS §H oT §g dd&J'd II H U PPtf [karnehar] 

Wj£ efe? wfU ofdld'd II H U 3Ptf [karnehar] 

Awpy ricAw sB kY swiQ ] Awip kino Awpn ibsQwru ] sBu kCu 
aus kw Ehu krnYhwru ] aus qy iBMn khhu ikCu hoie ] Qwn 
Qnuqir eykY soie ] Apuny cilq Awip krxYhwr ] kauqk krY rMg 
Apwr ] mn mih Awip mn Apuny mwih ] nwnk klmiq khnu n jwie ] 
m 5 279 

ft ^WZ\ H W W7> II HU 'VZO 
yst t^t feu 3?> Sfc II HU HtO 

yst t^t feg 3^ Pu 1 ii gufu sufe fnrf w^ 1 ii yn ot&3 fdidHd or ^h 1 ii u?> ?> 

VSffi ^H c^ OT II «\ II c7^?> H faftr frl3 ^H 315 wfs II of^ H Hfe ffJ3 3% fsU W?S 
II *\ II ^Ff II ft WWZ\ ft W H^ II TTO oft ft fat HH^ II t^t <7Ut tfe Wf U 1 ^ II for 
^$& WoB HH 1 ^ II 3 II ft UWUW ft iflt sfu 1 II «ff>(3 JVH W7! offe off^ 1 II H U <\tO 

§?> oft ^5 sft tfl»f ?tfw II H 1 ! W3\ 3 y^f H3T II ftift HWHt >W^ ufal II 3 II fry SOT 

^f h^ $w ii Gran iran nrayf hf uh 1 ii ara? hu 3fir u^f %77 11 h y 3tf*\ 

[ren] [ren] 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 41 



HU 1 feftpflT nfa fe§ ffc fliftj- || h U 3tfU [ren] 

few tfe £u H^ 1 FTO§ II H y 3^ [ren] 



These are some of the examples of the numerous variations in the orthography of the 
Granth. They are culled from the first few hundred pages. It is obvious that the entire 
text of fourteen hundred and thirty pages must have hundreds of such differences. This 
phenomenon requires very urgent in-depth analysis by the most competent 
musicologists and linguists to guide the readers of this holiest of the holy Book of the 
Sikhs. This study will obviously be long and arduous. What matters most at this stage is 
that the readers, the granthis, must pay attention to these variations and concentrate on a 
very slow, word by word articulation. The absolutely correct pronunciation, [sud path], 
is the most sacred task of the readers in Sikh theology. When the same word is spelt 
with short or long, high or low vowel, a/a, i/I, u/u, u/o, i/e, e/e, e/eh, e/eh, with or 
without nasalisation, in the same utterance, and several times on the same page, the 
reader has to be very diligent, very slow and very careful. And when the scribe hesitates 
between u/o as in f»F^ , HWtF , diftit; , HUtT, 3R1W, the reader has no choice but to opt 



42 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 



for one or the other vowel. Finally, it must be remembered that Punjabi is a tone 
language with three levels of high, mid and low. Each tonal contour is realised on two 
syllables. The onset of the tone may begin with the initial or the non-initial syllable. 
There are also stressed and non-stressed syllables. This disyllabic contour is highly 
complex. This has been almost completely ignored in modern Punjabi writing but it is 
duly noted in the orthography of the Granth as in %fs, «3fe, 3fe, ^fe. The ears of the 

scribes of the Granth were much better tuned to the rhythms of the musical 
compositions of Gurbani. 



II 



In the second section is presented a detailed study of the language of Sukhmani of Guru 
Arjan with some of his other shorter compositions. The specific linguistic features are 
highlighted with bold letters. It is obvious that in Sukhmani, [b] and [n] dominate 
though there are occasional expressions with [w] and [n]. The same is true of other 
compositions of the same author where [w] and [n] are more frequent. This extreme 
admixture of different linguistic registers could be due to the discursive, theological or 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 43 



musical exigencies of the various ragas. Or it could simply be due to the different 
scribes and copyists. 

Finally, the text of Sukhmani is compared with that of Japuji of Guru Nnank, the 
inaugural composition of Guru Granth, composed almost a hundred years before the 
editing of the Granth. It is obvious that these two texts present two distinct linguistic 
registers. 



arf^t mm\ h§ u ii 

n^Hfddld UHrfe II 

Km ii »rfe ara£ &m 11 iwfe ara£ &m 11 Hfeare£ 7)HU ii nt are^£ 

7)HU II <\ II »fH3UUt II fTW^f faHfo fmffe TO U^f II offe of$H 3?> H^ 
ffe^f II fH>raf tFH PdH^d £ot II (TK TO? »BT7J5 »f?>ot II ife y^?> fHftffe 
TO 1 ^ II oft?> d^K (TK febT »rtf^ || fecW £dT ftTH tfl»f ^T^t II 3 1 oft HftjK 1 
3T?)t ?> »Pt II oM £ot EdTT HU^ II ("TObT f?> Hfaf ftftr ftnt II ^ II TOH?>t 
TO >tffa3 l^" (7K II 3UT3" H77 ot Hfo fOTH II 37F§ II U3" ot fHHdf?) UMfe ?> 



44 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

^ II U3" it fa>raft> EtT HH ?JH II l^" t faH^fc oTO U^jf II U^ it frn^fc 
£HH?> 3t II U3" fKmS ofS fell?? ?> wlf II U3" it faH^fc Wjfe-j tM II U3" it 
faH^fc gf ?> fwO II UF it faH^fc tW ?> Tfery II U3" of faH^T? mT it Hfaf 

ii h^ fccr?j (Wjor ufo ^ffar n 3 n uf it fHH3f?> foftr frrftr ?>§ fofcr 11 y^ it 
tH>rat>> far»r?> fws 3^ fftr ii u^- 1 fFn-raf?> hu hu yw ii uf it fH>rafc 

fERift EFF II IJ3" it fa>rafo 3teH r«HcS'<Sl II U3" it fHH^fc E33RT W&\ II U^ it 

fFn-raf?> ufe h ^tf ii U3" it frn-rafc h^w ^w ii £ fa>raf\r fo?> »rflr fairai* 
ii ftoot 3 1 it wurf u^ ii 3 ii m of fmtt m % §w ii m it fmrafo fut 
h^ 1 ii U3" it faH^fc feH?^ g# ii i^" it fjq>raf?> t& fe Tit ii u^ it fa>rafc 

(TZft HH 3W II l^" it faH^fc ira?) WW II U^ it faH^fc H?> oft HW t^fe II 
»ffH^ (7K fw Hrftr HHrfe II U3" rft 3Hftr mT oft ^H^ II (WJoT H?> of E 1 ^ 
EFRT II 8 II U? ol§ frTH^ftr ft q?j^§ II U3" of§ faH^fb" ft ufe^ II U3" of§ 

fHH^fd" ft h?> tra^?> ii w of§ fHH^ftr ft iratr uip?> n i^- of§ fmrafb" frr 
^huh^ ii U3" of§ fHH^ftr frr h^ it g^ ii i^ of§ fjq>raftr ^ Htf^Ht ii U3" 
off trw^ftr h^ 1 ^fy^'Hl ii frr>ra?j t wzt fe »rtu ufenr^ ii (-TOot h?j oft 

H^ g^ 1 ^ II U II II3 - o?§ fHH^ftr ^ U^lJbT^t II U3" of§ fH>raftr fe?> HU 

yfwd'dl ii u^" off trTK^ftr ^ ytr hu^ ii uf off fa>raf\r fe?j Hftr fert ii 
U3" of§ fjq>raftr fe?> wzh tfte 1 ii U5" of§ fmraftr fe?j It^hw gts 1 ii w of§ 
fH>raftr fe?j ^rtc uj^t ii i^" of§ fRmfri mrfu ufe ^t ii Tfe foor ^ n^tfe?) 
t^far ii (Wiof fiq>ra^ yt wfa ii ^ ii uf it fH>rat>7 orerr yt ii m it frw^Tj 

oraZT 7) ^% II l^" it fHH^fe Ufe 317) g^ II U3" it frTH^fe HUtH HH^ II U3" 

it tH>rat>> P(SdtJW nrH?) ii U3" it trn^fe othw fydi'HcS ii u^ it fHH^f?> »f?ju^ 
y(SoCd ii m m fn>ra?j or >ofe ?> u^ ii frr>raf\r ^ h?j fti?) off m Hfe»r n 
("Toot fe?j rr?> Tra?)t ufe»r ii o ii ufo tmra?) offe w^s uut^ ii ufe frw^fTj 

Wftf ^U fu 1 ^ II Ufa fHH^fe 5^ ftw FTBT E^ II ufe tTW^TJ 7^3 tt $Z W$ 
II Ufa tH>raf?7 CT^t H5" era?) 7 II frTHfo fHHfe ufe of^T) ofgTT II ufe fHH^f?) 

oft§ hutw »ioT T ^ T ii ufe fH>ra?j Hftr »rtu f^ocd 1 ii offe fofgiT ttiH »rflr 
g^few ii (W>or uraxftr ufe tmra?? fefe urfw 11 t h ^ h ttoot ii ute e^^ 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 45 

etr $rw uffe ujfe wb vmQ ii rrafe 3WG\ nrfe§ <w>or it uf tfh ii «* n 
^m^uut ii rju hb Hb 1 tb hb ?> wz\ 11 h?> fu 1 ?>»h §t nfar hu^ ii hzt 

HU 1 ^fewi E3 HH EW II 3f\T ot^tf (VK Hfaf §t Utf II tTO HHoftf ut »ffe 

^t ii ufo ^ (7K ftf?> Hrftr fcr^t ii »fer ycsd^dcs ofdB ?kJt nt 11 ufo ir 
(TK itfe u^r iraut 11 urayftr ctk ttutt h?> At 11 (Toot u^t ntf ui?>t 11 ^ 11 

HUW fijRfc it ^tT tJtft»F II Ufa of (7H tTIB Ufe Htft»F II W 1 ** ofM % 7) 

ut ii ufo or (TK tub f(SHdd ii »ff?jor >rfe»f ^rar fetr ?> i^t ii ufo or (Th 
tub nrupf ii ftra- H^far fey ws feitw ii szr ufe (TH nfar U3 - ndw 11 w 
?^H7JHF fw^ ii ("Toot urayftr iraK urfe iretw 11 p ii f^ ?Kft otfe 

75tT Wt II (TK HIB 3ZT Urfe U3BT II »ffobT fsPUti FB »ffe HUpf II Ufa of 
(TH 33oTO ftpf II ttffoof Hfc tT?)H Hfe tTH II (TH tTIB U^ f^H II uf 
HW Hff ora^ ?> qf II ufe of (7K otfe ITU yf II W (7H tTUTT h?> ^ffar II 
(WJbT IFHtW H^ ot Hfaf II 3 II tr=RT H 1 ^ it UT7> TTfa ?> oTH 1 II ufe of <7H fu 1 
Hfaf 3H 1 II fa^T Of HU 1 WT UTW 1 II ufe of (TH Hfaf frflnT^ II rW Ufa 3^ 
ot ?> fH? 1 ?? II ufe of (TH 3U (Tfe US 1 ?? II HZT HU 1 ^fe»T?> 3UB S[U WH II 
3ZT ufe it (TH oft 3H fufo &H II HU 1 fetf 1 H?> 3? »Porat II 3ZT ("TObT ufo 
Ufe »ff>B g^t II 8 II 33B tW oft yddP6 (W II Tfe H?^ ot Hfe f^K II ufe 
oT (7K ETH oft §3 II Ufe ot (TfH fqt H?j otfe II ufe HH 5^3 H3 fe ^rfe II 
Ufe Ufa »fftfg H^ oTHrfe II Ufa tT?j it Ufe (7K fotn?> II U'dydfH tT?j oft^ 

e 1 ?) ii h?j 3?> ^ftr g§ gV ^it ii (-Toot h?j it tefe fetit 11 u 11 ufo or (7K 

tT^ off Hoffe HUTfe II Ufe it (TfK H?j off fevfe fBlfe II ufe oT (7K tT?7 of 
|U ^UT II Ufa (TK HIB ofHUt?J^r II ufooTfTKTTTioft ^fe»TEt II ufe it 
(TfK tT?j H^ 1 U 1 ^ llufeoTTFJTKTTTJofftUTTTHrilufefTK FRB ofg (7^1 
fySdJ II rl?> ^B 1 Ufe (TH oft T& II (W>of UH Ufe Ufe ^ II ^ II Ufa Ufe tT?j 

it >ro tnto ii ufe q^ h?j off »rflr ufe ut^ 11 ufe ufe tt?> it §3 tb 1 ^ ii 

Ufe y3^ ^^ >>f ^^ <"> ^^ I' ^ Ofe tT?j Ufe ^tH ^B II H?j HHrftr (7K ^H 
HB II »TS UU^ tT?j Ufe Ufe tTU II Ufa of 5UB UUB tt\ 5U II ufe oft 3UTB 



46 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

Hoffe 3U oft II ("TOoT W) Hfe 33 3t II II IF3W3 feu ufe ot (TH II ofTHtT?) 
ufe ufe 3T5 WM II H5" 3 §3H ufe oft ofH 1 II ("W W5S EU^ t?tr tfH 1 II (TH oft 
HfUH 1 Tfe fW ^H II Tfe U3rflr tJU3" Hf ?JH II Tfe oT % ^cte'dll iretw II WS 
oft ^ (7K fa»FFtW II (TH 3fe off »f^U ?> ufe II ?TObT UTUHftT (TH U^ tT?> 
otfe II tz || P || HfibT II SU WWS W fHfWHt 03" HUH ^#fe II UtTfe (TOt ufe 
Ut (-TOoT (7K »fHtf II °l II ttfH^UUt II WU H^T feW) Hfe fw?) II tf3 HTO 

fnfKfe ^fa»p?> ii hut »ffe»TH otuh gH foffe»F ii Hura fe»rfur W) HtT fefe»F 

II »ffeoT UoPU oft£ HU rT^ II W) E 1 ?) UH HU UB^ II HUTU of^rfe UK offe 

ws\ ii ^uh ^h oft gu g*3t ii ?>ut ?fe u^ (7K sfau ii (-roof uruyftr jtk 

rPJTm feof W II <\ II ?>f *fe feHHT fet feu tltt II HU 1 fu^ 3lftHU Htt II 

»turfe Hrftr UH3 - uu 1 ?) 11 offer >mh ffeu §th e 1 ?* 11 fefwt otuh oft gu »th?> 

II H?> >rUUr HfTH »ffe mi?) II few fa-ftf offe HUTU of3# || ^f ^t ufft % 
?> t^t II ufe ot (7K HHHfe off (TTU II (WJbT UTUHftT (TH tW^ Uffe Urfe II 3 II 
H?> of T >f?j T 3TUH ^U ft II UTU§ UT>F?> ?> H?> 3 U3 II HU oft fe?>H »fU U^ II 
W) oft % ?> 3?> 3 t^fe II feH £ut off 3U mW oft II W) % oraU ?> fefw 
3U II Hfe qf 3U ^U ttfi-ftfe II HIT 5EF ufe oPUT 3tfe II H?> ufe ot (TH oft 
HfUH 1 fu II (-TObT (TTH fqt ute WW II 3 II 3U3 fTl»nSU HH oT 

^§ fwO ii »ff?joT H3?j offe feH?j (^ cru ii ttr »f^or vmfa 7>u\ ^t 11 otfe 
fire euurt ?Kjt frit ii f^ftr (Tut f^" ufe»rfe 11 Htu fwutu Hrfenr tTffe 

II »reU ofUffe HUT?5t tTH 5^ II 3tt¥^ 5tT?J fe few ?JUT >Ft II ufe oT (7K 
tWB tt Wfe II (TTJbT t^ HUfe H^fe II 8 II Urfe IT^UH ^ ot >M II TT^ tT?) 1 ' 

oft ^ wit ii ^ ot »rvj?J T ^ tfet ii ufe ufe m\ fet hu urt 11 ^ ot 

^TVJTit H^ 1 ^t II H'UHfdl feu U§H gt II ^ ot tT?JH H^5 3 ^t II H^ rW oft 
H3?)t lit II feH tT?j off m EUH tln^TH 1 II ("TOof 3 1 ot gfe gfe WW II U II 
HUW VJUtf Hfe ITU¥ V 1 ^ II H'UHfdl H 1 oT fet »ffeK^ II »niH off H TO 
(■jtU 1 II Hf UT?)tm WS % fu 1 II H 1 of* H^ Ufe HUW oft UT^ II ufe ufe (TK 
fefe Uffe Uffe ut?jT || H?j >xy^ § ggr f^y || {Jf ngy^ fij^fc ht^jt || gtr 

EtT W5 HH feTT^H 1 II (WibT HOT ifo ?JUT ^U 1 II € II feuU?> of§ q?j §t (^ II 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 47 

ffiW% off (7§ §gr grf || fo^ off U3" 3t H 1 ?) II HUTfi U|^r off £^U F?> II 
ofg?) oJd'^d'd H»THt II HUTfi UJ^r 5* >>f3dFHT II »flT?>t Ulfe fHfe Wm »FiT II 

»py?> Hfar »rtu u^ ^§ 11 3>rat fHnfe hh ^ ufe 11 (Ttjot >ref ?> F?>fH otfe 
ii 9 ii huh ituh Hfu hh^ craK ii ufu ot (TH hUt fouHtf oraK II H3TW fw 

HTU §3H torfw II H'UHfdl FdHfe Htf fufU»F II HUTfi fF-T HTU fFT 3W II 
UfU of <7H F4U tflnf HF II HUTW ^7)t HTU >ffij3 ^t II UfU ot HH Ht>> UH?> 
Htn?)t II HUTfi U 1 ?) U §U §3H W§ II (TTibT fHU Uffe ^H UfU (TK II t: II 3 II 

Km ii foddjcslnnu fenrfiw HUf hf hh^ ii fafe oftw feH utfe uy 

(TOoT fcyut (Tfe II <\ II »TH3lTFi II UH5W ot dJ7> UfU ITd^ II 
o^?> Htf U of??> P^Hd'cSl II frTf>> f T^tT H^fe Hldl'fdW 1 II UTU^ »T3Tf?> HTU 

ftT?jftr Qy'fd»f ii w fy^Hbi' usfu fwu ft ii gfu hh?> #tt?> h*t hit ii 
feuftr ^fe»r firfu h 1 ^ h?> ii yftr »rfwf fte off §?> 11 feu 0>ddj<s ur?> off 

7) ft II mrtH $U 3f (-TOof HT# II ^ II feu UTTffe ITU flTTU HtV 3HtU II HU 
sP3 H% sfou 1 ' HfdT UHTU II THU yHrfe irefr HT3W HW 
II HtfFFt IT^ UW WW II THU UTTffe tcfrfu TT% UH 1 II HUTfi HHdft HfdT 
TTffH OT II Ut?> UHU ire ofdTi ^ d7W II feHTU fettftdT >reU HT3T UF^ II 

)^WH?wr fenrtf 11 (Ttjot spfe $u u^ nr^r 11 p 11 »rfe >tffe h utiTsuf 
11 feH frrf ytfe ?> oft ur^f 11 w oft h^ 1 ?j^ Mr ire 11 3 1 ftrf h^ 1 h?> ?KtT 

Wt II H S^f HE HF UHt II 3 1 off W H 1 ^? Fd" II W oft 3UW ire Fd^RT 
H 1 ^ II feHtZT fOTt HUTg nftT^ II HF HF feu gWcSd'd II (TOoT U^TKHf 
»flT T f II 3 II dB?> fevxrftf off^t TTtUT dt II H 1 ^ tfe fS HT3T H§ II H £37^ H 
»fHfed; offe H^ II H U^ H Ufe ITd^t II tfe Ffe feH oT HH oft II HT3T 
HU'Ht feH ITdUt II UF5 ^U f^ qfe II UTdlTH utfe 3HH TTtUT tfe II >>W 
^IT Hfe Ufe^ fyoid'rt II ("TOof ofrfe ^U lf§- Ffe»TW II 8 II ofdffe ITH oft 
HWT Ffe II ^of ITFd 7 oft tF5 di^ II Wfe #tf >fefe HW HrfeW II glTTH 
(Tfe ofg oft glTrfW II g^jfe tdT»T?J fWT) feH<V<S II >>fefe fe»nO % H»T^ 
II >>Bfe »fdTfe grufe 3?> H»TU II dffe UTHd - oTH 3t rfiWZ II F ot >fefe ^ 
IT3" »ftlT II (TTJof ^ H?j HUtH HHrfe II U II Hfe W oTH >PddT ire II ofd" drfu 



48 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

$g §fe Oiiwl ii ofur yyidfd gt id 1- ii fTTfrr ofdlw nf hh§ t^ 1 11 o^f 
ta?>uu ant urar 11 H3?> sit 3§ gt na - gar ii crt ftrara ira^ - ud" 3^?> 11 ?Kft 

U3 fu 1 §H UT^?> II ofdd'd of§^ H efc> 3?>3t oft II (TTJof 3Hd7 fcTUlT 3t 
II € II Hfaf Hd^ H »rt ?> Etfe II H t^Ht 3 1 fa§ iftfe II H75»F ot faRT 
3T3fo SH II W5U ottf Hrfe^f dT^f dH II fe offo >pt H?jftr U^tfe II oTO ?> 
»ft H# Etfe II id" to om fjfel Hd" II fS faoPg" Hd 7 $3" CRT II few HUTfe 
fep£ ofgt H?>H II (-TObT grfbT % »Rf?> offo ofdH II II f 5^f 3H irfd" 

^ra^frr 11 ntf fvf Hf 3dr ^frr 11 hh hb Hb 1 uk ^feor §t 11 3Hdi fgar 

HRT Htf UJ^t II otfe ?> H 1 ^ HHd 7 »fe II §3 3" §W 3dT^ II HdW 7=T>raft 3>ft 

Hfe tpdi 11 3K ^ ufe h ^rfampordT 11 sm\ urfe fkfe hh di w£\ n ftoot 

^H H^ 1 ofdy'(Sl II tz II 8 II H% II t^d'd UF sfe ot Wdrfd" »P?J H»Ffe II 

("Toot off ?> ntent te (^ ufe t^fe 11 ^ 11 >mh£ijet 11 eh snf $ ire ire 11 

£of SH3" oref?> fclSfc UT^t II £of ^t ?> Efe EH §t fdfd" $fe II 3f H3 1 ofy 
ofUr oftfe II ftTH S^d" faf cTOT E'd 7 II 3 1 off oftH HE ("iHHore 1 || H 1 ot Hfo 
tfW Uf Hte 1 II Hd^ TO HRJ Hfo fS 1 II faH W) WW UofH Hf^fW II Hd^ 
HbT ("TOof fefc Urfew II <\ II >MUT?J? H^ »W?>t E d^H II tre iffe 33§ >X?>E 

ftfrtH 11 >w?>t nfH 1 ?) off gufo hrj $fe 11 »fftmn?>t nfe #h o?%fe 11 »w?)t 

Uddlfd »rU Ut ¥# II gufe §H oT ftH/H ?) Ut II fHH oft 3H? feH »T# d^t 

11 m oft »rftr»F h^ h^ ii §h §■ tiQdics oft fou^ 11 (Ttjot Hfftii he 7 
?fey>m 11 p 11 »ff?)oT wfs Hffenr ot t^ 11 Hd^id" u^^ W& *>&& 11 totr oft 
srfew fnf % wt 11 §d" fa?jH fp; nfc usHrf 11 h eIh h -d'WcSd'd 11 wife 

dt\j§ 3ZT WT Wf II g^rf faf H Wt ^d" II 3 1 off Urfe ?j »rt otd" II H?j 
dtd" ot (7H oft Utfe HtfE'Ht II offe fof^LT ("TOof »fflr ?5^ WHt II 3 II fnfw 
3^ U?> ^3§ H^few II fHfe»F ufH HH3 1 HffenF II f>ffB»F dTT H3?i q?j HW 

11 fnfw oth #n Pyojd'w 11 fnfw dH UH3t »fH ^hh 1 11 fnfw dV Tfftr 
Hffew Oftr uhh 1 11 fnfw gd" >Rr »ffeH^ 11 frffw »niH fvfe ofd3 mw?> 

II »fHfef 5BTfe H^ oft Hd?> II (-TOof HUT HUT tflt dtd" ot Ed?) II 8 II fHfe»F 
H?7> Ud" f^E 7 H?jfd" II fafW dH? Ud" Ed^ of§ fu^dtd" II fHfe»F ^? Otf^ Ud" 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 49 

few fire ii fHfw grw #ri?> »i?> Tge ii frrfw b^?j ire 1 faora off cp^ftr 11 

ftffw Wi W tfF Msf'^Pd II fafW 3?> ?)Ut iraflJbT^ II fi-ffw 
^H $3" (dcCd 1 II te ft fafw HF 3$ II H^tf £ZT (WibT Ufa Ufa cVH fi£ 

ii y ii tent h 1 ^ oft nr^tT 1 11 wz fw otzt u^3 tto 1 ii ten 1 (-J 1 }* fw 3?> 
wr ii yftr »r^3 3 1 it soti 11 fa?> fmra?) fe?> tfc fw fwfe 11 tiw fw 

faf ^3T W?5 II Ulfw 3fl?> fe fat HF oW II faf foraij?) ot PcSd'dtl U 1 !* II 
lff?> iff?) 3" rf?> frRT Uffe gfa§ ufo (7f II ("TOof 3 1 ot gfo gfo t^f II £ II 
^TJ3 »f^ off »f^ oTH^3 II Hfc ?Kft ytfe H^RT ufe W^S II H'cVid'd Uf 

iraste ii wfuz #tr ?> ora 3te ii »re^ fu^H »rfV ?> oft 11 »r^3 h^3 h?>h 

Ht II frIH t >>f3fo SH fc^off II feH oft HttT 3t HTFf II H 3H ^?> f3?> Uf 
W3* II (Wjof f?> H?> 337> IRf^ II P II of^f il?>3T U^UK Hf t^ II »RI?) T 

oft»r »runj ># ii wufu wu »rflr ofg3 fcifo 1 11 feH ufo tw^3 feH as 1 ^ 

^ II fire fo»P?)U HUTtf 3 3U3 II Hf off i=n?> »T3H oft ^TJ3 II ftTH ^t F3H 
fi£ tffe tf^ II W& ycSciPd ^fu»F HH^ II H H^ ftTH fofgiT of^t II few 

few hUt (Toot <rat ii t ii u ii ffe 11 otk §tn »f§ £^ hu' feftr trf? 

»RJH^ II (WJbT l^ Hd&'dldl offo UTTC UTO^ II *\ II »fH^trer II frRT UH^ 

£3fcr Jofftj3" trftr ii feH sw off gy h?> wfu 11 fazr UHrfe Hute 3ft> w^ftr 
ii feH off fnms iraH urfe u^ftr 11 fazr uh^ gnftr Htr >fefe 11 feHftr 

ftf»ffe H^ 1 H?j >>fefo II ftra UTFfe ftRT Hfaf HtT gH?T II »TS UTJ^ tTW^T 

•k *k — — 

feH 37W II ftTZT UHrfe ^UT 3H #BT II ("TOof TTC 1 fawtw ftl»r^?j HUT II ^ II 
faZT UTFfe U 1 ^ U^g^ dt^fd II feHfd" fevxrftf of3 »fW^ ^'^fd II ttW UHrfe 
HtT ^tT HSlH II H?j »TS UU^ 3 1 oT HH UT^tH II trRT UT^fe 3? Hf olf >rt II 

yftr 3 1 ot hh ^H?j gtnt 11 ttra urqrfe §t ^tjh 1 cray 11 h?; ttct fq»rfe ^75 

U^^UK II U3" tft tWB E^URT H 1 ?) U^fd" II ("TOof life H3t Uffo H^ftl II 3 II 

tt^r imrfe w cra?> ^ut ii fe^ w^zr feH ^k H?)ut 11 ftra UT^fe h^ 1 §?^ 

■^ WW ^ 

^TJ3 II H?j HtT U^ftl Ufe Ufe HH ofU3 II frTU UH^ §t HUW fe ^ot II H?j 

— — — -^ ^ 

H3?)t Uf 3^^ UF 3 1 ot II fair UTFfe 3? it ?) UUt II H?j HiTT HiH fHHZU 
V® %% \\ $RU UHrfe U 1 ^ 575^ %U II (TTJof 3 1 oft 3Ulfe oftZT II 3 II ttTZT 



50 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

UTFfe »T^tf?J UPddlH II W) feH fm^S fof§ »[WT oftH II frTU UT^fe >XH 
UHfe »fH^t II H?> feH U3" of§ oraZT ?> fyH'dl II ffRT UTFfe TO ftflW q?^ II 
3*y lltfe Uf »fy?> HcT II fafo M H?> ^?J5 W?Z\ II §3? t3? HU feHftl 

ftj»r^T ii feHftr fwfe r £of »rat ii ntu 1 fu 1 (7?^ §gt gtii a ii fira 1 

UTFfe of^ft" U?) gZT E 1 ?) II H?> »TS UU^ offo feH of fa»F?> || ft^T UT^fe 3" 

wwg fyQd'dl ii feH y^ off Hrftr t^tt fe^t ii fRU ur^fe 3^ ttc^ fy ii 
h w frn-rarr ttc 1 »f?>u ii fazr UHrfe M ?>tbft frfe ii h u^ faHfo h^ 1 fe?j 

grfe II ffTO" UHrfe M Ufe ^ff II Ura UT^fe ("TOoT fTH oft II U II frTU UT^fe 

wrfu ora?j (-to ii fRU UHrfe itofa fwre ii ffRT u^rfe twftr >>rfH? ^tw ii 

frTTJ UTFfe HftT HUf) WW II ffRT UT^fe UH3" of^ U^ftl II frTU UT^fe mtt 
^tfftr II frRT UHrfe l^K UTfe U^ftl II frRT UHrfe HftT HUftT HH^ftl II w 
l^" fe»rftr »f^ of3" WURT II UT^ UHrfe (-TOof Hfc fTURT II € II frRJ UT^fe 3 
UUT3 HFFfo II feH UF off Hfe ?> H?j^ fwfo II ffRT UT^fe 3^ U^U II t 

wi h^ f 3 1 off fry ii tVrj yHrfe §t wzr yt 11 feHftr w§ h?> 

Tre 1 Ufjt II frRT UTFfe f U^ftl TO II t Wi At f 3 1 fHf ^f II frRJ UT^fe 

h^" oft urfe ufe ii (Toot fry fiu fiy Hfe ii 9 ii »rfV fRi 1 ^ fiu h (Tf 11 »rtu 
up^ h ufe 3j7> mrf ii m forair ^ ufe yum 11 yf ufe»r ^ othw f^BFH 11 

l^" HyTT?) 3H Hfe Hfe II U^ UfW ^ Hfe §3K ufe II TRZ fej 1 ?) l^" M 

Hfe»r ii »rrt off ?> feg wfw ii te te w^ te 75urftr ufe (Th ii 

(Wjof fe?j ot off ?j TTB II tz || ^ || H^ II »fUTK nraTrftr TOJH Hfe II H H 
oft H HbTH 1 Ufe II Hf?j Hfe 1 (WJ^ fd^d 1 II FTP" HcT - oft »re^fT ofH 1 II °l II 

»f7 : ^^^ret 11 h^ it nfar w ffro uh 11 H'UHfdi >w Huwt fe 11 h^ it Tfftr 

t>43 »ffOT?) II H^ it Hfaf irait HftPM 1 ?) II Tm it Ttftr ^t U^ ^ II H'UHfdl 

— *v — — — *\ — 

Hf U3 fe^ 1 ii h^ it nfar u 1 ^ (TK ^h^ ii mr it Tfftr ^or fufo fB^ 11 h^ 

oft HftjH 1 ^^t of§?) lf?>t II (TOoT HHT oft H^ 1 1^" Hrftl H>f?)t II ^ II FTO ot Hfaf 

»raraf fHt ii h^ it Hfar Tre 1 ira^w 11 h^ it nfar »r^f\r gftr ot ii H'UHfdi 

>>ff>f? ^H f^ 1 II H'UHfdl Ufe H5" oft %?) II H^ it TT^T H^U^ t?j II HHT it Hfaf 
?j of^J Cpf II H'UHfdl »fHfefe H7> Iff II ITO t Ttftf HrfenF § 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 5 1 

ftt II H'UHfdl (-TOoT UF HUH?> II 3 II H'UHPdl EHH?> Hfe >fe II mi it Hfaf 

hu 1 U7>te ii H'UHfdi feH faf ?>ut % ii mi it nfar ?> afar Of II mi it Hfaf 

(TUt it HE 1 II H'UHPdl tW) ICTTOF II mi it Hfaf (TZJt uf 3^ II mi it Hfaf 

3H Hf »pu ii »pu iro mr *&& 11 (Wjor mr uf sfc nr^t n 3 n mr it 
nfar ?> sra^ tnt 11 mr it Hfar hu 1 hu ire ii mrnfar ^h^ »rara^ rct 11 mi 
it nfar »ftif Hfr ii mr it Hfar ^h Hrfe ft 11 mi it nfar Hufe uut 11 mr it 
nfar fe# Hfe craK ii mr it nfar ikw uwuh ii mr it nfar ui> cth feu 1 ?* 11 
(Wjor mi it ddy'ts ii a ii mr it nfar hf && firt 11 toU mi?> Hte 3<th 

PtSHd'd II mi it Hfaf H U?> U^ II ftTH U?> ^ Hf it sldH't II H'UH Pdl traH 
^fe oft ^ II mi it Hfaf HF 1 Hdt^ 1 II mi ot Hfaf HOT UWfe?) II H'UHPdl 

>>fte 3j?> urrfe?) ii mr it nfar gn h 1 ?* uffa 11 ?robT mr it nfar h^w t#h 
ii y ii mr it nfar ?Kft off uro 11 e^H?> i^ ts fou^ 11 mr it nfar ot^u^ 

uf II mi it Hfaf ?>3oT UdTlt II mi it Hfaf STO 1 fu 1 HZtW II H'UHPdl Pd^dd 

ufo>te T iiHfeiHFt^u T tiimiit nfar ?> fa^H 1 ml 11 iotk mr fw 

g^ II (TTJbT fqf mi Hfc 3H II £ II mi it Hfaf H?j§ Ufa ??§ II H'UHPdl Ufa 

it 3j?) uf§ 11 mr it Hfar ?> h?> § tat 11 H'UHPdi fraud" P<SHdd 11 mr it nfar 
753T uf Hte 7 11 mi it Hfar urfc uffe ^te 1- 11 mrnfar ^ »rfaT»fwt 11 mrnfar 
urfe ^Ft umjt 11 mr it Hfar f>^ Hfe tur 11 (Wjbr h^ #£ Tmur 11 p 11 mr oft 

HTUH 1 ^ ?j Wrfcj II ^H 1 H?jftT ^H 1 aftfWjftl II WH oft fllH 1 fef 3J^ ^ ufe 

11 mr oft fuH 1 grft ^^yfe 11 mr oft h^ 1 or (Tut »fe 11 h^ oft h^ 1 Tre 1 
^>fe 11 mroftH^futf^t 11 mroftH^HU^H^t 11 mroftH^mrgf?) 

»TFt II (WibT mT U§" tf 7) WZ\ II t: II II H^ II Hf?j WW Hftf 7=1^ Hfe II 
»f^f ?> itt ^bTH te otfe II ?TOoT feZT ?5g^ aUK ftT»T?)t ufe II =\ II »fH^UHt 

11 auK ftr»r?)t w& fe^u 11 h^ tto Hftr othw »f^u 11 suh ftr»r?)t h^ 1 
t?>^tr 11 h^ h^ Hra of§ hu 11 auK far»r?)t it feHfe hh 7 !?) ii h^ ^h €ot 
off wit nfe u^ 1 ?) 11 auK far»n?)t it cftew ^br 11 faf tot itf ut itf ue?j 

^U II aUK ftT»T?)t oT fet 3Wf II (WJbT trff U^oT oT HUtT H^f II =\ II 
3UH ftT»T?)t tTJ^HW ^ f^MW II H^ HW ?j Wit rJW II ^UK ftT»T?)t it Hfc 



52 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

Ztfe iraPH II Hft m §l|fo »PoTH II SUH faPWit it to H3" HHrft) II 3UH 

ftmn?>t it (Tzft »ffe>f?j ii stuh fti»n?>t fw §■ f^ 1 11 Hfo »w$ f h^ §■ ?ft& n 

SUH ftl»n?>t ft AS 3§ II (^"JoT frT?) U^ »Ffir oftfe II 3 II SUH ftiwft HUTtf 
oft ^ II »T3H 3TT SUH ftl»P?>t Ut^ II ^UK faiwft oft HF §ufo Hfe»F II 

— ■ ■* ■* s 

SUH faPWit t of^ W ?> gfe»f II ^UK falWit HU 1 HH^Ht II SUH faiwft 

oft feHfe wf>ra saftt ii suh far»r?>t w> ^ hob 1 ii ^uk ftmn?>t oft 
It^hw hub 1 ii guK famnctf or #n?j far»r?> 11 ??m suh fapwft or guK 
fa»n?> ii 3 ii guK ftrwft ^br firfe »th ii suh fapwft or ?Kft ferr 11 stuh 
fapwft it urar^t -nmr 11 suh fti»n?>t i^ira^ §mr 11 suh fapwft it <7ut 
trtF ii guK ftrnr^t $ w^s w 11 suh ftrwft it ufe h ^w ii suh ftmn?>t 

H^tf ^W II SUH faPWit Hfaf HUTtf ftPf II (WJbT SUH falWit flO H3TW HJFf 

ii 8 ii ^uk ftr»r?)t it ^it ^ur ii suh far»r?>t it sh u^ hut ii suh fapwft it 
(7K »nr^ ii suh fapwft it (TK ira^ 1 ^ 11 suh farwft Tre 1 hu ttoth ii suh 
ftmn?>t »Rraftr fenrura - 11 ^uk fapwft it Hfc iraK^E 11 suh ftpwft it wife 

Tre 1 »i$^ II ^UH faPWit HtT HUtT fo^H II FTOoT gUK ftl»P?>t oT ("nft feWT 
II U II gUK ftlW>t ^UK oT ^H 1 II gUK faiwft ^bT TT^T ^H 1 II ^UK ftl»P?>t it 
Ufe »ff^3" II ^UK ftl»P?)t oP fc^HW H3 II gUK ftiwft frfH oft UF wftf II 

^UK fapwft or g^ iraH^r 11 suh fti»n?>t or e^h y^^'dil ireffi n ^uk 
fti»n?>t of§ gfe gfe trot^ ii guK fti»n?>t of§ yrrftr h3h^ ii (7?jot ^uk 
fti»n?>t »rfv ira>te ii ^ ii guK fti»n?>t oft oftHfe (Tftr 11 suh 
ftT»r?)t it hutw h?j Hrftr ii guK ftp>r?)t or or§?> iro tu 11 ^uk ftr»r?)t of§ 
Tre 1 >x^h ii ^UK fti»n?>t or offew ?> h^ »ra T tr^ 11 guK fti»n?>t h^^ or 
s'ora - ii guK fti»n?>t oft Ms ot§?> gtn^ 11 ^uk farwft oft urfe ^uk ftr»r?)t 

t^ II fUK faiwft oT >% ?> IHf II FTOoT fUK ftl»n?>t off H^ 1 (WHoTf II 9 II 

suh fti»n?)t h^" fmfe or oras 1 11 ^uk fti»n?>t hu tflt <wt h^h 1 ii ^uk 

wk wk wk -^ 

ftwpst yoffe TOife tflw or e 1 ^ 1 ii guK ftmn?>t y^?j yw fyti'd 1 11 guK 

faiW?5t WTO oT (7H II gUK ftiwft ofr H5" §llfe U^ II ^UK ftl»n?>t oT HUW 

ttfora ii guK ftp>r?)t »rtu fisdoed ii ^uk fur»r?)t oft h^ 1 ^uk ftrnr?^ g?>t 11 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 53 

(Toot guK ftmrctf mx sr tuft 11 t: 11 t: 11 h^ ii ffo tnt # »fefo ??h ii 

H^ H Ot sfdl^'cS II few few 3^ ?>HHoPt II (TTJof §<T ttRI^H HUTtf 
P<SHd'd II ^ II »fH£!IUt II fafw (TUt dTW iraH II H?> Hftl Utfe PcSdVlcS E^H 
II ira fe»f |U 7) Ot $3" II FTO oft 3Utf HdtfPdl ^3 II ofd?> ?> Ht off oft fife 1 
II H3" § W% »RfH off H^ II UT^ UHrfe fefw U^Tlt II H?> oft WTW W) 3 
2t II fStjt ftT3 ifo #tf 3 3TJ3 II (WibT otfe Hit ot W »RI^H II ^ II tH?> H 

ftm fufo Hp ii faH?> oft Hrfenr § ufe fi?) ii ofd>r ofd3 ut feuoran n 

feH §h£ of fo^Htf traH II off SW oft feS 1 ?Kft grf II oktf 3Urf3 odddA 

nfar ^t ii W) 3?> >ofefe fHH3?> 3iirw ii H3" fufo u^^ fagira 11 »rflr ft[# 

»f^TT (TK t^Pf II (WJbT §<T §h£ ITCH 3TT3 Iff II 3 II sfdlQdl 3UT^3 3U1T3 
of % II HUTtf fe»fW tJH3 of % II H?> 3 fa?JH HUTW 
3^H II offo UH HUTtf UWJH II H'UHPdl U^F Htf St II feH sJdlgdl oft Hfe 
§3H Ut II 3UT^3 oft 3Utf oft ft>3 ?>tfe II H?> 3?> »reO ta?> U^tfe II Ufa ot 
B3?> ftrat ^rt II ("TObT W sfdlQd) 3UT#3 off Urf II 3 II H Ufe3 fl H?> 
iratt II ^H (7H »T3H Hftl Ht II d^K (TK HTf ^H Utt II fH ufe ot fll^fH 

m tflt ii ufo oft oth 1 ftrat grrt 11 h ufe3 fefo nfo ?> »rt 11 ite y^?> 
frrfyfe ft hw ii HtfK Hftr h 1 ^ nmnw 11 uzt ^tf off # fu^H 11 (Ttjot frj 

Ufe3 off HE 1 >X^H II 8 II ^ttT H3 H3H ot fdVWfi II U^ ^^TT Hftl HU 
ot§ (VK II H H tlU feH oft UTfe Ufe II H'UHPdl U^ fl^ otfe II offe tofgi^ 

>>fefe f^ crt ii uh 03 wue iro^ off 3»t ii m% tur or »fftff ?ry n 

offe»T^ |U H3W 3J^ UFH II oTU- HUlfe toft ?j Ur^t^ U^K II (WJof feH fw§ 
ftTH feftfW gfo orafK II U II ttlH ot Hfo IOTH oT Itj^H II feHoF??HHfe 
d^K^TH II »T3H ^K feH <TO^t »f T fe»f T II U^ ETfe grfe fefe Urfe^f II H^ 1 

feffe feffe ufe w§ ii h eth e^rt ira^?> ii »fy^ eth off »rfir femi 1 oft 

II feH ETH off H5" H^t lit II HUTtf TT% »T3H furH II >M HUlfe 
(■TOof grH^H || £ || yg- eft »TftT»f »T3H fUHrf II ffk?) Hoffe H§ ofUrf II 
3W UW tH 1 fH % II H^ 1 »Rf 3TT ?nft fe% II 3H 1 H^^ §Ht fH H 1 ^ II 

ot nfte trft to tp^t 11 trr h 1 ?) §7^ »ffOT?j 11 ot ^sr tH 1 ^w?j 11 h 



54 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

s?dd'£ WZ\ flUTfe II (WJoT §g ytt dTUfrtf tfej Hoffe || 9 || UrafUH ot HUT$ 
Srf II te te Uffo ^ OT fe?j (7§ II »T^ ora?> ofd'sto % II U3" ^t HFt 
ff?> % II UHfo§ »TfV Ufe >M?J? 3^UT II T& ?> WfU U^UK o* ^UT II HHt 
Hfe ^fe OT ira^FH II UWUH o^H 1 ttrf^H II H^ 1 H^ 1 H^ 1 ufe»TO II 

faHfo faHfo (Wjor g£ fou^ ii t: ii tf 11 j^m ii Qh6?6 oraftr »f?>bT h?> >% 

?> U'd'^'d II (TTJoT gWF ufe 3^t ^ feftr ttffobT Uora II <\ II »fH3lI^t II oJEt 
otfc u£ yH^t II ofFt oTfc »P^ T ^ fyOd'dl II of^t oife ^ ^ten ^Ht II &z\ 
otfc 3?> fHftl f^Ht II ofFt olfe ite o* ?}§ II oJFt olfc 3lite U§ II ofHt otfc 
»PHH fq»T?> U^fa II of^t oTfc offe oTTH yltd'dPd II of^t otfc ?j^H?j (TH 
fa»T^fa II ("i 1 ?^ ora§ ST >% ?j U^ftl II °l II of^t oTfc ^£ ttffeH 1 ?)! II ofHt oTfc 
WT »fftT»r?)t II ofHt olfe femi?) oJS^ || of^t oTfc »ffeUT »T3H foora II of^t 
otfc W ^^ off fogfa II ofHt otfe 11^ Etf?) 7 ofgftr II ofHt otfe HrfeW tjh 

Hrftr ii ofHt otfe ira^H fHrftr ii te te *rezr te te *5ut?> t 11 (Wjbr sra§ 

oft W?i of^H 1 gWF II P II ofHt otfe fTW HHT HUft II ofHt otfe Wrt 3H tuft II 
ofHt otfe Utft T^y fll^ II ofHt otfe UW ftor folffl^ II ofHt otfe U^ U^t 
tH3^ II of^t otfe ^H ¥ H375 II ofHt otfe HH^ H^ ?>t|H II of^t otfe ^ 

e 1 ?^ f^ frrfo esr ii huw H>raft »fut Hfe tnt 11 <toot ItiH ftm ^t feg ferj 

f(SHd'd II 3 II ofHt otfe ^rTH HTHH W33 II ofHt otfe ^U y^?j 
fHfKfe »f^ HTH^ II ofHt otfe of^ ^3?) HKU II ofHt otfe ?JW yof^ tfe II ofHt 
otfe oft^ fe^" tft% II oTST otfe tWt >ra H^Ti HT^ II ofHt otfe tW iof?^ HfH 1 ^ 

ii of^t otfe |3 0^ Hbra f>ran^ ii h^" t ?>t mu 3 ufe ii ("TOot »rflr »ffeu3 

^f\P>f ^Vfe II 8 II ofHt otfe UTH^ ot ^rft || ofHt otfe ?rabT H^gf O^'HI II 

ofnt otfe H?jHftr tfteftr >raftr ii ofnt otfe -su wft fegftr ii ornt itfe ts^ zft 
trftr ii ofHt otfe upT^ftr nfe urftr ii ofnt otfe of^ q?^ n otnt otfe Hrfe^r 
Hftr ftfe ii tra hzt ^w 3zr 3zr ^ ii ("Toot Hf fef yg- 1 zpf ii u ii sret 
otfe g^ tg^uft ii ^k (TK TTftr fefe fe^ wm\ ii of^t otfe yg- of§ yi% ii 

W3H Hftl Ura^UK 75U^ II ofFt otfe E^H?) l^" Hf»TH II fe?j of§ 1>rf?5§ l^" 

»ffg?> i H ii oret otfe HTurftr hhttut ii urasuH fe?> wuf ^ur ii fa?> of§ u^ »rflr 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 55 

HUH?) II ("TOof § fl?> HE 1 Uf?) Cffo II € II ofEt oTfc tf^t ^ *fe II ofEt otfc 
ttfoFH gUTfe II ofst otfc U^ »f^3^ II ofEt traife offc ftlHfcPd II ofEt W 
UHfo§ UTO II HU 1 HE 1 feof ydd'd II of^t oTfc dft?> ad" W?3 II U^ 3" u£ U^ 

Hrftr HHrfe ii 3 1 or >% 7) wfi orfe ii »ptf »rfir (7?^ uf Hfe 11 o 11 ofnt orfe 

U T d^d>[ o* E^ II fe?> U^3" W3H iraUPH II ofEt oTfc 3^ o* a§ II HE 1 PcSd'dPd 
£ot ?>§ II of^t otfc (TK dH Ukftl II WH3" 3$ HU HE dT tftefd II oTEt otfc (7K 
UT7) UT^ftr II WZH dffr HftT HdftT HH^fa II »RJ?> H?> off W?R W?R HH^ II 

(Wjbr §fe ud>to ot fti»rt ii t: h ^o 11 j^m 11 ora^ ojw uf ^ ff eh^ 

("jTUt otfe II (7?)oT feH yfeW'dl Hfe afo HZft»ffo Hfe II ^ II 
>MH^iret II cfd?> ofd'sto orat % II H feH ^t HHt U?T II ftf?j Hftr wfui 
§WmUW II >% ?Kft fef U'd'^'d 1 II dofH tpfo Wra dirt II dofH flJH 
doffH HHrf II dofH fu ?>te fyOd'd II dofH »fef ddf iraoHd" II offo offo et 
»RT7>t ^fe»f^t II (TOoT H^ Hftl dfd»F HH'Ft II <\ II U^ ^t HW Ulfe Iff II 

i^" ^t 3 1 uw Hd^t ii u? al fe mr § ^ ii y? 
^t 3 1 dfd are ^t 11 y?ft^ ute ftpf 11 »rfV oft »f T y?j ate^ 11 fu 1 
frrfw 1 or nrHr h»tht 11 3t fauiH ^ofedWKt 11 h ^t h ord - ofd^t 11 (-roof 

feH^t »f^f 7) »rt II P II ofd/ HW 3" fof»F Ufe »rt II H feH ^t HEt ofd^t 
II feH ot Urfe Ufe 3 1 Hf fe $fe II HfeH^M oftfe II ^(SH'fSd fafw 

Hftr dt ii h WTis »Rf?j »ru at ii 3d>* f^ ^d" feftr tnt 11 fi-iHtr Hrftr u^ 

^3 fefe »rt II offe fofdU 1 ItTH »RT?ft 5BTfe ^fe II (TTJof ^ H?j (TfK f>^fe 
II 3 II ftf?j Hftl ?>te offe of§ d^tT II UTdaUK UT^ta fc^tT II H 1 oT feqfe 
off ?j »rt II feH 33oTO Ed" feH UUT^ II H 1 off »RI7)t ofd m^ftH II 3 1 of 
^tf 1 ?j UTt HdltilH II ff!§ ftfe H5" feH oft d^H II Uffe Uffe l^?j gdK U3FH II 

— — s •* «* 

»Ri?>t as^ »rflr arret 11 (-roof ntt ^ftr a^^ 11 a 11 feH or aw (Tdr feg 

ZTH II oTd?> oTd 1 ^?) Hd^ ot (7H II ^rfdT^PoTdT ay^ 1 rftf II H feH ^t H^t ff?j 

atf ii ofap; fu ?>fe Hftr a^ 11 ofaf hut dw ^ftr zm 11 ofap; fife fw 
PyOd'd ii ofap; §f ^ioth ufe»rw 11 ofap an 1 ajm ate^ 11 (-roof »rHr 

f^rt'^id'd II U II ofad" tTvdfe oft ad - ^fe II ofad" Hfe dt fe?j W?3 II ofad" 



56 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

HU 1 §tH fddd'W II ofSU HUH oft U3 U^tf II ofSU ufe HU S¥ UW II ofSU 

itnut ?>tu or hw ii srau wjcfldfd Hfu wt 11 gray fw fw o^rt 11 faf 
uf u 1 ** fe^ ut uu 11 mu UHrfe (TcSor h§ oft 11 £ 11 orau ufe ufe oft w?> 

II ofSU tifkU'dl W# fWS II ofSU 33 3tdH feHcT?) II of^U ftw Hrfaof yftf 
faPW) II ofSU offe UHT3 U33T ufe tflw II ttffoof Hfc 3UH 3UHt»F II ?JW |U 

fa§ H 1 ^ fent II fa§ U3" Ft fet ?>^t II H feH Ft HEt ufe II FTOof SfT 

- ^ ~ * - = 

»Rf ?> otfe 11 9 11 srau H'UHdifd feu int 11 §h nfHH 1 ?) 3 gufo ?> »nt 

II »f3fu ufe fUPW) UUUPH II §H ttfHH 1 ?) oT ?>UT fecTH II Wi 3?> (TfK U3 feof 

ufur 11 h^ 1 ^Hftr toih it nfur 11 faf MHfetro nrfe y^w 11 fef H3t 

HfUT Hfe HHW II fttfe UTF UT^?> U 1 ^ fHHTH II (7?JoT UF it HE oJdy'A 

11 t 11 <w 11 Km 11 Htft hh WHofl<s1»F »ry 0^'fd 3$ 11 gf gt nruoFutttF 

("TOof UTdfe 3T$ II ^11 »fH3UUt II faH ot >>[3fu d^ ttffFH 1 ?) II H ?>doflJT3T 
U^3 H»T?> II H t^t H H3?>^3 II H U^3 feH^ of H3 II »TyH off ofd>li3 
ofUrf II H?jfK H§ HU Hf?> FH^ II U?) ffk oT H oft UTH 1 ?? II H Hd^" 

w >xfai»p?> 11 offe foraii 1 farr it fuut muTat HH't 11 (-roof ntu 1 Hof3 »n§ 

Htf yrf II ^ II U<WS' Ufe offo dldyl II te HHrfe oTf HfUT ?> fFt II HU 
tfHofU H 1 ^ gufe oft »TH II U75 Ft3fe 3 1 oT Ufe toH II HF 3 »TU H 1 ^ 
-5&is II ftf?> Hftl Ufe tFfe 5HH3 II fofH ?> 3§ »rtu »fUoret II CIUK W?5 f3H 

oft y»rtt ii 3ju yH 1 ^ h 1 or f># ntfeH 1 ?? 11 h fi^ (Ttjot e^rt tra^^ 11 p 11 

itfe ofdK oft U§ CTt II HH Urf HUT^ fddbl'd II »ffobT 3Ufrq»f oft »fUoT T U || 
(■jdof HU3T fefe fefe »f^3 T U II »fer H3?> offe »T3K ("nft ^t II 
Ufe E33RT ofg oTH 3lt II »niH off H ^W ofUrf II feHfa ^W^t feffe ?> »pt 
II HdH oft t?> H 1 oT H^ tfe II of^ (TTjof ^t ^ f?Jd>fW Hfe II 3 II HH *53J iTO 
H^3ofSUfe II SHfeHoffw (TZft otfe II HH fel W?i H fef ofd3 T II 3H 
753J Ura^" Hfe Hftl fe^3 T II HH crt olf M HT3 II 3H 753J P^dtJW (TZft Ut3 II 
HH 753J HZT H3T77 TT^T H^ II 3H 753J CRK di^ £fe HWfe II UF fof^LF 3 
W> 33 II 3JU UHrfe ?TOoT Uf ft II 8 II HUH ¥3 tftf off ffe crt II fevfe 

?> »nt HrfevM 1 u 1 ! int ii »ff?jbT fur ffivw it ofu 11 ?ju f3U3 T t 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 57 

tfflr tfUr Ht ii fw H3tr ?>ut itf g^n 11 hu?> h^h fat h^ sph ii (W ^ffar 
h^ w ufe ii y^sf'dil fat u^vfe ufe ii sra?) ojd'^ts »rtf »rflr he 1 Tre 1 
(Wjor ufo rrfir ii u ii ora?> o{d'^<s sra^pf 11 feH it uin set gfo^ 11 hht 
feHfe oft ot ufe ii »rtf »rtu »rtu i^" Hfe ii h fag- oft^ h wit ^far 11 h^ 

3" Ufa H^f ot HEfT II ft £t oft WbT II »RTEJ £of 

»rtej w>or ii wt 7) fa?jH »rt ?> t^fe 11 ?TOor he tj\ gfu»r HHrfe 11 £ 11 
»rfu fu^H HHt »rflr 11 »rT gfw h^" it wfg 11 »pfir oft^ »ry?j fyHbi'd 11 

Hf of^ §H oT §g oldSd'd II fH ^ f¥?> ofUTT toff ufe II H 1 ?) bl&dfd £it Hfe 

ii »w?> ufe? »rflr ofdld'd ii ofgdof oft ^ur »fw 11 h?> hej nrHr h?> »W7> 

Hrftr II (7?JbT oftHfe oEJ?> ?> W?5 II P II Hfe Hfe Hfe Uf 
H»THT II UET UdH'ft! fat ^ftfWft II H? H? H? Hf oft?) 1 ' || ^fe H^ fe^ fag^ 
Ufa 7 II 3W 3W ^W 3^ fU II »ffe HE^ Wtt »f??U II fo^Htf fo^Htf fo^Htf 

M s 1 ^ ii uffe uffe H?>t h^?> mret ii ute ute ute u?)te 11 (7K hu 

(Wjof Hf?> utfe II t: II <V? II H% II H3" H^fc H H?> lit H H?> Qlldrtd'd II H3" 

oft fire 1 (-TOofT gufo gufo »^3^ ii <\ ii WE?uut ii 7% it etrfc »rgH T uit h 

H3" it Etffc HH t ?kJT ft II H? it Etffc W Hf t^fe II H3" it Etffc ?^oT HEJ 
Urfe II Tfe it Etffc Hfe Ufe Htft?> II Tfe it Etffc H^ 1 ^ Zft?> II H3" ot 
U§ off ^t ?> itfe II H3" it Etff?) H 1 ?) fT13 Ufe II Tfe fgfUTW fgOF ^ oft II 
("TOof HdHfdl fiW ^t 3t II ^ II Tfe ot Etf?j t W 3# II Tfe?j it ^ffe ofW 
IrTf 75# II Tfe?j it Etffo H^U Hfe Urfe II H? it ^ffe f331H Hfc tofg>rfe II 
T%?j it Etffc feHTF Hftl tit II Tfe it ^ffe Hf it gW II Tfe it Etffc §H Hf 

t^fe ii h? it ^ffe ?>te (SltJ'fy ii jfe stft or nrf it (Tftr 11 

(WJbT Tfe grf 3 1 §fe ^t Ulfe 11^ II P II H5 oT fiW HU 1 nfHHTFt II H% oT 
fiW ftf^ fcbTTi ?j IfFt II Tfe oT f£tt HU 1 ufevM^ 1 II H% oT fiW l^HHfe 
H^ 1 II Tfe oT fiW ^H ^ 7J\?) II Tfe of 1- fiW Etft»f »lf ^ II H% ot fiTObT 

off h^^ t^r ii Tfe it fiTOor off he 1 fanar 11 Tfe oft f£& etr Hftr #^ 11 (-roof 

Tfe^t^fHor^tufeWH 3 IITfeofTEtftHE 1 »Rlfef II Tfe oT #tft fofH 
ofTf-Kftte II TfeotEtftof^^?)™ II Tfeot#tftof§HF f3»r# II Tfe oT 



58 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

#tft HU 1 ttfUofrut II H3" of #tft H3 1 PdoCdl II Tfe oT Etft H75H HU II 7% oft 
ftf?) 1 ' HtT t 3U II ?fe ot #tft off <7UT 5i§ || (^jof H? ^t 3 1 ft£ twfe 
II 8 II H3" of Etft WT ^tu § ft II Tfe oT Etft fet offe ?> UUU II H? ot #tft 
off ffe»T?> f>ret>tf II H3" of Etft f^fe irefotf II Tfe oT Etft >>[3U t HH 1 II 
fef HTT fe77 feU3of oft OT 1 " II H? ot £tft oft H? fef <7fe II 
»R[7> Htfe »P0 UT tpfe ll H3 ot £tft off >X^U ?> UitfTKPf || (TOoT H? ^t 3 1 
tf£ f^rfe II U II H3 oP #tft fef Pytttt'Py II fef HW feu?> Hftft dd^d'Py II 
H3 of Etft ftF ?KJT U*H II fef UW Etufe ?KJT gr^ II Tfe oP Etft ft feotw 
II fef |»Pf fetf ^ H^U UUW II 7% ST #tft HUH 3" UU3" II 7% of #tft HU 

fefw ofU3 ii feu? feeor sp gfe ut ufw 11 (TOot h feg g# fist few 
ll £ ii 7% op utft feui^ uy ufe tFfe ii 7% it stft off euuru few Tqwfe II 
7% or utft ne 1 Hdocylm ii t% or etft ?> hu ?> Hk'ylw ii h? it etft oft yn 

?> ^TH 1 II 7% W Stft ffe UW PcSd'H 1 II 7% ot ufe ?> fsTRt otfe II HH 1 g# 3W 
oTHt Ufe II Ufe»F feu? ?> H3 otfe II (Wjof t^t HU 1 Hfe II 9 II H3" U|3 feH it 
§U dd&J'd II H3 1 HE 1 feH off (-JHHoTU II m oft QH6?6 ofUU fe?> U*fe II 

fenfe fe»F?u TFfe Pdid'PH 11 Hf off ^ut feH of ofW 11 hh 1 ofu ot it hW 

II »RI?) T 3tf »ffe oJdSd'd II EHU cff?J oft sfaf II feH ?> fgOF oft feH 
»PII7> (TH £fe II y^sf'dfl (Wjof H?i Hfe II tz || ^3 II HW? II 3HU fe»P?>U Hfe 
HOT feHUU Ufe Ufe U*fe II £of »FH Ufe Hfe 3W (WibT 3^ 3UH ^f 
Hffe II <\ II »fHSiret II HOT oft £of Wt H3" H 1 ?? II 3^?> off £ot ^dl^'6 II 

feH it #tf gt »furfe ii gufe ?> feH?^ w# nrfe 11 nt ^t ^ot »rflr 11 >tm 

ot fef (TUt Urfe II feH oP UofH ffe Wf Ufe II feH of (TH W otfe Lftfe II 

fenfe fenfe fenfe yf nfe 11 (-roof fem^ ?> w# itfe 11 ^ 11 fnsfe h?j nfe 

offe P<Sdc{'d II offe H?> H8" Hfe PyOd'd II fe^HW ^H?) 7 >3?fH3" iftf II HS 1 Ht^ 
offe Wfe Htf II tOT % 5^^ oP ^3J II H'UHPdl fe?JH H§" % II 33?) 375f 
>Tdfer UtfW II fe^fe ITU HUt>H Ufe feE II of3 Ufe ofUH H^fe ufe ofH 1 II 
Ufe EUUTU (Wjof §HW HH 1 II P II fc&sJ'dll ^ H?j H3T H^U II H3 1 H3 1 ufe ot 
UT7> UFfe II UTH (TH H ofufe HT^U II H CI75^ UT?ft TTHU II Hfe 3fe Hfe twfe 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 59 

ufu ytft ii He 1 He 1 wm § Htft 11 §a £a £a us 1 ^ 11 te f^ oft §u hst 

H 1 ^ II (7K Hfaf ttlH oT H^ HrfTJW II (WJbT f3?>fU 0>d°H6 tFfcw II 3 II 3TU 

UT^fe »ru?> nry h# 11 feH at wm f=nw ?# 11 mmfar utu 
utu hh au3 ii hu^ uur §■ §u utu t^ UU3 - ii »f?jfe^ ate?? a^w sto ii 

fdldHd HTU HHt Oidd'cS II £a fufo THH H?> oft »TH T II f%H oft oTSTW HK oft 

^h 1 ii tojh oft ftm Hfe ftr ii ("roa feHfu 7) wmfu ftr ii a ii fflH af 

UTU Uf Hfo fufe »pf II H % HUW ?>UT fWt II THH Uf »ty?> T fauur at II 

h H^a au faH t ^t 11 hh 1 h 1 ot r^H^'fym 1 11 »fy?> a^rr Hfu »rtu 
HHrfenr ii ms ms ms ntfw 11 utu UHrfe 33" Hf ffw 11 hh Htff 3H 

Hf fc Htf II (TOa H HtfK H5T »fHftf II U II ?kT faf Wift ?kT foff H§ II 

»nn?> ufaf »nu ut at 11 »n^?> h 1 ^?? ftrefe »p>tt[Hfe 11 nrftrnna^t chut hf 
frjHfe ii »r^ »rflr huw Hfu nrfir 11 »ff>>a nurfe ufu h 1 ^ fHrfV 11 wferHt 
(Tzft faf *fe ii trw trfu ufu§ gu>fe 11 »ratr »fi^ yutr huh^t 11 »rfV 
Hui* ? (-roa fpu ii € ii fa?> yf ws* h fte'^d ii huw hh^ fut fe?> >te n 
U3" a ^a huto Qu'dcs 11 uf a ^a etr totu?) 11 »pQ Hfo ^ fagvw 11 
utu a r H3? HfV f£ feu 1 ?* ii f?> oft ht wet wit n far? £ fgor aufu ycte'dt 
ii (7K hit? u^fu fayy ii Troa fe?> yutr af §hh afo h 1 ?? ii p ii h tag- 
at h uf a ufar ii HFHFgHufe nfar ii huh H^fe ut h ufe ii aui<Pf 

Ug't Hfe II UF a 1- oft»F H?) Ht?5 ?5UTW II HH 1 H 7 HH 1 feH3W II ftTH ^ §UH 

feH Hrftr hh 1 ^ ii §fe Htr t?>cr?) f?>f gfe »n£ n »ryH af »rflr nt?> h 1 ^ ii 
(■roa uf h?) ^a h 1 ?) ii t: ii ^s ii H&a ii hu^ a?^ ^miu uf faun 1 hwkP^ 

-^ — — — s -^ 

II H 1 ot tHH^f?) fqut>H (Wia feH dfwd'd II <\ II »fH3lIHT II f^t dl't^xJ'd 

ifim ii Hua fftw »r€r ufeu^ ii huto oft tw ftm h?> Hrftr ii feH ^ faun 1 
a^t (Tftr ii t wi hu he 1 ufo frfir ii ^fytS'Hl uf »rT »rflr ii »Rf?> at»r 
af ?> ufe ii h h§ in?>t ^t afe ii feH fa?j (Tut §t fe a'H ii urfe Froa 
nflr ^a utu (7H ii ^ ii fii% ufe (Tut hu ii m at nfe huto uj^ hu ii 
UA^d 1 ufe ta»r a urat ii w Hf faf thh a 1- ut»r Eut ii »ffe hu 1 h af 
au# ii itf oft aw tw au cpf ii h a ufe at ethtu ii thh ^cSd'd h 1 ^ 



60 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

UTW II feH UT^ UT^fe ft uf % II ("TOoT H H?> H^ 1 »f#UT II P II fef HEd" 
off WW HH?J II fef UT^ of HW H?>fe ttfHHH?? II fef UW ?^ ufe 3t II 
U^t UT^ S^ 75UT3 0>Hdd II fef WJofd" EtUof HOTT? II UT^ EdH?J £ftf Hfe 
ufe fOTH II fef HU 1 ffe»F?> Hfe HW U^ II fef Hf Hfe fefe Hfe 
UUT^rf II fe?> H3?> oft ^sf life II (TOdT oft dfe fiU 1 life II 3 II H?> Hd*T of^ 

tauwtflft ii y^ - fe£ or fefw u 1 ^ ii Etr w u^" th^o'd 11 »^ fe»rftr 

f fenfe feH^ II H off oft HFt Htf H 1 ?? II §W of^ fedfe nftWJ II off?) ^H3" 

^r^t 3t hut ii wife dfe§ dfe ^t u^ur 11 ^h tw nfii fed£ nfa n (Ttjot 

life H^t Uffe t^fe II 8 II feH ^tfd" off tfe f >>rfe»f II d^H (TK H3?> Uffe 
UrfevM 1 II 3fe »ffeH T ?J WJ H?> Hfe II d^H (7K fed£ Hfe tfe II Wfe 3ll H3d" 

nfe to ii »^d" fe»rfe fefw hto ii nfe irfe oft Hf otfe ii w §hw dfe 

Ed^Td" Hfe II fed; ^Pf f%3W ^W II FTOof 3 1 it HU yfrtd'd II H II B37> 
H^ ot ^fe dfe lltf II »fdfll H^ off »RI7J T tftf II HHT oft qfe ofdTT feH?) 1 ?) II 
mT fllfe WZ\W ojdy'6 II mT H? 1 ^sf'dll U 1 ^* II H'UHTdl dfe oflddrt 
UTCt>tf II »ffeoT fenj?) ^ Hf d^t II dfe 31?) 3Ffe >>ff>[? dH U 1 *! II §3 3Rft 
H3d" ufe »ffe»F II Hd^ Htf ?r?)bT fed" U^W II € II fedBof off tJk'ftrtd'd II 
§3" off &Z3 WPd" II Hd^ feCT?) H 1 oft feH3t W?U II yd^ fe£ of tfd^ Urfe 
II Hf toff feH of §g ofdt H3J II feH fe?j EHd" U»F ?) U3J II Hfe H?) HS 1 HS 1 

fe?j 1st ii h§" ^ fu fedHw fed" orast ii offe fbrair feH off (7H ut»r 11 

TTOof H H?J fed>IW Ht»f II 9 II tT ot Hfe UJ^" oft UdBtfe II feH H?> »Pt dfe 

uf ^tfe ii 3UT3 5UT3 H?>t>^ fed; wfe ii w it fedf ^it ufe ii Hf orast Hf 3 1 

oft dTJ3 II Hf fedt Hfe Hfe ofU3 II W^\ feHfe H 1 ^ 1 »ToT T d; II Hf ^d# H 1 ^ 1 
UW II UTd^JH fefe Hf offe W3* II (TTJof HtlSHfe TW^ II tz || ^L| || 

nm ii dv?>d^?>d3rtofgfep;uj^tu^^?) 11 fenfe i^ (T?^ feH ut 

HUH?) II <\ II »fHSllUt II »ffe?rHt Uf H?) Hfe d^ II HW oft f utfe fe»TUJ II 

feH ^ lit (Tut fe? itfe ii Hd^ fedHfe £ir nfe ii »rT gt?F nr€r uw 11 

Ulfe^" Uratf UTd% HHW II UTd^dH ll^HHd" Utfw II fgOF fecr?) ufe»TW 
SUHU II H^ §t oft ^g?)t U^ II (Wiof it Hfe fed" nfTid^ II =\ II HcW ira?) 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 61 



m?? HUT II # offo UTfe»F HHt UUT II Zra?j 3^7) tTofT^t^ II feHoT)fes 
tF$ Uf II >»1?JE |U HUW HU H 1 it II H^ Hof H?ft»fftr Uffo 3 1 t II ^tT Hftl 

^h hut Hfa M ii 3U Hftr Hyfrra PdidHd Hftr tuft ii fwfe fwfe guBzr 
tw urfenr ii (TTior feH iratr or fof^ >ofe ?> uiw 11 p ii w oft wtw oft Ms 
(Tftr ii huw ^ tp% yftzwfu ii Hb 1 or h?jh fe rro U3 - ii huw utnt »iy^ 

Hfe II HKfe faPM 1 ?) fa»P?> fa?> £fe II Wi ETH ("TK fw?fe £fe II 
fecT 3T5 Hftl W off gg>ft II H?jfK Ht fefo »rt HiMl fu ?ftu feH it 
WTO 1 ?) II HH 1 tW# HH 1 ("TOoT W7) II 3 II ?JW |U ?JW H 1 it ^UT II ?JW §tf 

oraftr febr ^ur ii ?jw f^fti oft^ fyHbi'd 11 yi ^ff^wft Sdocd 11 ?>w ufc 

oft ftf?> W?U II Ufa dt\j§ y^ H3" Srfe II ?>W feftr offo WyS W?Z\ II »w?ft 
oftHfe »RT l^t IIHFUI^feHotH^feHotsrfllHflrHflrrilt (WibT Ufa 

(^ ii 8 ii (7K ot crt hut$ tfe 11 (-n-r it tpt *fe gu>fe 11 (TH it tnt frrfafe 
ilu y^?> ii (7K it tnt g?)?) ftr»r?j ftj»r?j 11 cth it tpt >xwh u^^ 11 cth it 
tnt huto nnof^ ii ("tk it cnt y^t»r H3" 3^?> 11 (W it Hfar fcit Hfo g^?> 11 

offo fofgil 1 trTH »P^ (7^ W$ \\ (7^ ^§§ y^ y^j ft ^ gyfe yr^ || q || 

fy Hfe w or Hfe nmH 1 ^ ii iray Hfe it^w train?? 11 sraffe Hfe Hfe h 1 oft 

W& II Hfe iratT HF W?U TWg\ II Hfe of^K W oft 3W Hfe II Htf Hfe Hfe 

fnufe ii Hfe orast fog>ra fc^H^t ii faHftr i^ feHftr h^ w&\ ii Hfe (Tk 

UF oT m&E\ II f^H Hfe (TObT UT^" ^ U 1 ^ II € II Hfe 3^^ TTO fll^H II 
Hfe t rf?> W ot tw U%H II Hfe 1?v5fe ft ^ itfe II (TH tUB 3 1 oft Ulfe ufe 

ii »rtu Hfe oftw Hf Hfe ii »r€r wfi »w?ft i^fe urfe 11 ftm oft fgHfe h 
ojdld'd ii »f^^ ?> ffV ora^ gferf ii ora§ oft i^fe ?> trt oftw 11 (Wjot h feH 

^t H ^^Hl»f II II fHHH?) fHHH ^£ fHHH^ II frTt>> ff9»F feH »rfe»f g^ 
II UF it ^ffar ^fe H?j ^ II UT^ it ^Uf?) IIB^H 75^ II §fe E^ tW oj'drtd'd II 
H 1 it Hfaf 3t 7W^ II H?j oT ^^ H ^^sCdil II W) it TTftf ^of fe^ WUft || UTTJ 
Utfe ofldd^ H?> UF# II UT^ UTFfe (TTJof ^5 U^t || t II <\€ II TTO^ II »rfe Tlf 

flgrfe nf ii t fk m ??m urft fw m 11 ^ 11 »fH£iiut 11 ^?> Hfe Hfe 

UdH(Sd'd II Iffl 1 Hfe Hfe fi^ti'd II E^H?) Hfe Hfe OtfTKP^ II (7K Hfe Hfe 



62 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

favM'^d'd II »Fftr Hfe Hfe H^ CT^t II »Rf UT^ »rtf dlAo('dl II H3? Hfe Hfe 
Uf SofB 1 II H^fe Hfe Hfe HH H33 1 II USAO'd off Hfe H3" ufe 
II 3 I 3of Hfe Hfe Uf Hfe II ^ II Hfe HfU fet frTf?> HffonF II 5T33 oW'sto 

fefc Hff USrfTPM 1 II W ot fet fOTH U3" »Ffe»F II 33 faT»T3 feH Hfe 

__ ^ _ ^ „__ 

ydkJ'fyw 1 ii i 3 0>d^Q ufe ^hw ii faH 3 fufw feH Hffe hhw ii -ms 

W?U $ -5H3 UT^Ft II 3 1 off 1^3 3 oTUTjr t^Ft II ft d^d'd Wof || (Vd'^V) 

fti& (-roof ^of ii p ii 3^ or h^ nrftrnnof^t 11 3>^ or h^ ne 1 yn^t 11 

3^ ot H?bT ot Hfe UddYd II 3^ ot H?bT ot fo^Htf stfe II 3^ off H^ 
t^t Hfaf II l^" of H?bT 3T-f ^ ^fa- || ^of 5f§ ^ yi^^d'd 1 II H?bT oft ^t 
O^of'd 1 II H H^ feH ufe»F Uf tpf II (-TOof H H^ W?H H^H HH^ II 3 II 
»W3 rTcT of ira^ ^ot II »W3 H?bT oft Hmi^ ^t II »RJ3 E^ off £fe ^^t 
II »RJ3 H?bT off 3 T H HWt II »RJ3 H^of oft »rtu life ^t II 3 1 oft Ulfe fafe 
otfe 3 wt II IJ¥ ot H?bT of§ it 3 UU§ II l^ ot H^of §U 3 §3 II H Ufe 

»Rj3t h? 1 tfTfw ii (-roof h h^ ezt fefa ydi^'few 11 8 11 ?fteft oftet nfe 

oftf ^ II 5HH oft tfHof^ otfe Wt II ftTH of HT? 3 of^3 »TfV II 
3 1 off ^tf3 £ offe TTB II HWT H33 of33 ^T ^fe II feH ot of33H tot Hfe 
II H^ 3 ^t »^f 3 otfe II H^ tft»f oT grtF Hfe II of^ H^ ofgftj t yst II 

frflr (TTiof w »f?5tr f%^t 11 u 11 w ^^ ^^ u^ fRM 11 ut >>fte fezr h?j 

33 giM II ("TH ^33 frTfe UrayftT Urfew II feH fe »f^f 3^ feH&few II 
3 r KCI33 r Hfy^r II WfmufeCToCHI II 3 T K^fHHtl3 feUH 1 ^ II H3 
33 3 r Kftr 3ffK HH 1 ^ II §53 1&3 H^3 3^ II ofg 37)01 A3 ot H^ oPH II ^ II 
t?5g HH frRTa 1 " fe3 ^3 II Ufe »RI3 A3 oft3t ^rfe II of^fa ^TT3 »T3H ot 
W?5 II U5" »RI3 frT§ gnftr HHTfe II H UW U^3 H H 1 ^ II U^ »RI3 oT UofH 
Vgfi II f3H oft HTUH 1 oT§3 ^tP3f II F3H oT f3 offtl ^of 3 tWif II »T3 UU^ 
m ^Hftl UHt II ofg 3 r 3bT ^tt!3ytllPIIH3Atf33oft§3 ^ftl II H3 
33 WW f33 H3 ^ftl II frTfe Hf3 »RI3 r Uf US^ II H A3 H^^ Hof oT U^ 

ii feH oft Traf3 Tra^ m u^ftr ii fen it e^fa h^ u^r fH<;^fd 11 »re^ 

fH»P3U HUWt S 1 ^ II f3H A3 oft 3 ^ WUT II »T^3 FF3 3 U^t 3^ II 3 T 3of 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 63 

feH Wi ot IJHU HU UU 1 II t II °0 II Tfm II Hfe UW frTf>> 
trfTJW HPddJd feH of* <7f II feH ot Hfaf fatf fut ("TOof ufe 3J?> UFf II *\ II 
»fH£iret II HPddJd fatT oft oft ufelfW II H^bT off UTf H^ 1 ufe»Ttf II frw oft 
UTf E^Kfe Htf fat II UTU 3B?>t ufe (VK fut II HPddJd fiw ^ W> oP3 II 
UTU oF frw facPU t ZF3 II HPddJd fatf off (TH q?> £fe II 3JU oF frw ^cte'dll 
U II HPddJd fiw oT U753" U75? H^t II (TOoT HPddJd fatf off tfl»f (Tfe HH't 

ii *i ii ara - ot %fa h^ h uf 11 utu oft »rfaT»r h?> Hfa hu 11 »rih off offe 

off ?> tWt II ufe ufe (7H left HU fa»nt II H?> iHj HPddJd ot irfH II feH 
H^bT ot of^tT U^H II H? 1 of33 ufe PfSdof'HT II feH off U3" U^ufe HW-ft II 
»RJ?>t fgOT ftTH »Ttu cfUfe II (TTJof H H^ UTU oft Hfe $fe II 3 II ^tH feH% 
3JU 5F H?> H^ II H H^ UUHHf oft UTfe ff 1 ^ II H HPddJd faH fet ufe (^f II 
»fer W UTU off gfe tFf II Hd^ fotF?> tfl»r oF E 1 ^ II »F5 UUU ITOHH 

ufar d 1 ^ ii stuh Hftr h?> rr?> Hfa ifusuh 11 £offa »rfV ?Kft off gdH 11 huh 

fHWSU tffe»F ?> WZ\W II <W>bT W UTf y^ef'dil IFFtw II 3 II HStf EdH?> 

Ore y?fe ii huh? bu?> urfe fodHft utfe 11 $zs nfar d^H 3i?> dt 11 toih 

oft EdURT UT% II Hf>> offe SB?) ofdTi »TUfT^ || Hfc HS^ W3H U3t»F?> II ip 
3TU »W§ tF oF H3 II >>ffH? feHfe Ot Ztfe H3" II are foofe bftHfe ?nft IFfe II 

?toot faH ^t feH rc£ ftwfe ii 8 ii fazra 1 ^of Qh6?6 »f^of ii Hfe yutf yu?> 

fa^oT II oFU t^ 7) VRH3 IF& II >XUTH *mtt l^" Prtdy'rtl II P(Sd'd'd Prtdlld 
HtfU 1 ^ II 3 1 oft oftHfe tof^ ?j iret II »ff7Jof 5UT3 W?) fe ofuftl II ^U?) ofHW 
ftrat fHHdtU II He yPrtd'dl HPddld »RI^ II ("TOoT tHH Ifflrfe W l^" HU^ 
II U II feU Ufa UH Urf H?> otfe II >3fte Utt »^f H Ufe II fH UUtT oT (TUT 
of£ ft??H II rT ot Hfe UUT^ dJAd'H II »TS UUU ufe oT (7H ^fe II Hf fll^H 
H^bT off ^fe II HU H T fe»T ot TTfUT ?j ^U II H?j Hfe U^ ufe ufe ^ II 
WJofTU UklbT iraBFH II (-TOof 5UH HU EtT 3U ^ (TH II € II 3Vfe Hffe 3^ 
^dd'yl II »!?>? ^fe»f EtT (7$ ^t II H?JH H3?> ot lH^ >>f^H II HHJ ot yu?> 
fll^H II ^f foT P(Sd^Q Ufe ^H II H3W fwftr H?j ^ t ?>H II tHH oT TV 
fefc forai^ CTUt II H'J-IHPdl nflr cTH Hd 1 ^ II fefe U 1 ^ Uot ^H UT^?j II Hfc 



64 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

(WJoT ufe ufe HH H^7> II II 0>ddl(S »Ffir H33J?> 3t §UT II oW trfe frTf?> 

Hrf hut ii m£ ute ufe »rtV s?^ 11 mnft dftHfe »fu u^ 11 ufe fe 

EtT <7UT olfe II H^ P<Sd°dPd £oT Hfe II §fe Ofe ufe»F flf UUT II 3^ OTH 
mi t M II gfe UWT »RI7)t oftf CT^t II »ffeof W j^cf yPttd'dl 
II t II =\t II Tfm II HTH if^fe 3H?> fefw HdTtft S 1 ^ II ufe ufe (TK 
ofH^T (WJoT feu d?> Hf II °l II WHSUUT II 7T3 H?^ fefe oTdU || ^ fa>ffe 
(TH »PEP§ II »f^fe flJ^ Hfe HT3" PdH'dd II U3?> ofHtf feu Hfe ffe UW II 
oTd?> oTU?j H Uf HH3H II fef offe URJU (TH ufe ^H II feu/ tfij HUU/ U^3 
3UT^3" II TT3" rT?) 1 " oT feUHft H3" II £of »TH UW H?> HTU II 
Hra tUT (WjoT fefe wfu II ^ II frIH q?> off ^ffe ^3 ffe tp^fe II H q?> ufe 
H? 1 ^ U^fe II feH HtT off fe? grgfe }fe II H W ITO Hfe U^tfe II feH 
H^ 1 off oTdfe ¥&\ oTd?>t II TF H^ 1 3H Ufe oft Hd?>t II »ffeof flj^t % ?> Wfe 

11 iaj fet ufe »f^tfg 754H ii Hra fetn?> Hfe ufe (7K fetn?> 11 hUt (Ttjot 
tdddiPd tre^i?) ii p ii h?> udytig ufe it (^fe 11 uu fefa w^s 

»rt 34H II 3 1 off fspm ("JWdTotfelltrotfeugHUfeHfell offe 3^ 
5^t ^jfo ?jTf || fHHfe feHfe TTC 1 HtT Urf II ^f fe?)H yU7> Ufe WK II 33Tfe 
^fe »T3H H33FH II fee? Uffe t^fe SH »]Py<VHl II ofg (TTioT oret HH ^rft 
II 3 II 33" ^faf oft H?> WW II H?>fH >ft H oPU of^ II »T^ T UT^ fet U^ 

h^ ii »ry fe»rfe Hufe urau^ 11 fef ub?> h?>h op ufe fcpf n ufe ufe 

feKfe IJ 1 ?) »TO T U II »ffeof §U^ ?j Ei^d'd II fHfHfe HTTT? ^U gfe 1 ^ II ufe 
oft 5BTfe ofgU H^ Wfs II Hfe ^53 (WJof ^tf l|rfe || 8 II HT3T (^ UT^fe §t 
CRT II f fe»F WJ^'^Pd HUtT HcT II H3 HT3 ^<TH »lf ^fe^ 1 II fe?j 3 ofUU 3H 
oT^7> JWW II U^tT U3T >Tfe»F PdHbl'd II fe?j 3 ofUU of??j ^of'd II »fH UH3T 
UH ^fH^UT II fS 7 if fS UWUt II fefe Ut^ feH it ?j feUTW II (7H fwfe 

(■roof ijgHw ii y ii ajd" oft nfe f $fe fe»r^ ii ^urfe tw gu ft fH»n^ 11 
ufe oft 3urfe orau H?j Hte ii feuHft ufe 3>nt un? 11 ug?> othw urtfu 

H?j Wfu II fl?iH H?JH ot fcTSfetT t^fe II »TtV flVU ttf^ 1 (7H fRI^U; II H?J3 
ofUH UTJ3 UTfe U^U II WU ¥3 Hfe Ufe ot (7§ II HUfe H^fe ("TOof 3T?> 3F§ 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 65 

ii £ ii an* w^s M QddfH % 11 taftr wfe ufft ta tw 11 ufa »ffw ^h 

HtT (Tfe II W?H UTTH Ufa (VK HH^ II S^ THWiU HUTWt W? II H'UHPdl 

u^ftr hw crt ii ufo utft nfo orarr fyQo'd 11 ntu 1 gy e^rt Horf 11 h^ 

ffSddfd £ot #y II ofg ?TOor W t HHHfof $tf II 2 II £oT rlflr £oT HWftl II ^ 

ftrHfo £ot h?j nrftr 11 £ofH ot uj?> w§ n&s 11 Hfc nfc wfu £or wmis 11 £it 
^ ^ ufe »rtu ii era?) ufe gfu§ uf fawftr h >>fft>°r funy'd £or ^ ^£ 11 
^ ^rarftr u^s? ut^ ii h?> h?> >fefo ^ uf ^^ " H^ V 7 ^ ^"^^ fe? 
h 1 ^ 1 ii tz ii <\tf ii h£^ ii fegn fe^3 uf »rfe»r irfenr nf Hd<v(y 11 ("roof 

oft l^" ^?J3t »RT?ft ^UBt 75^ II «l II »fH3l!Ut II fT'BbT rf?> fPt U^ U 1 ?) II offo 
fcjgiF ^TT Ufa (7K II mT fW oft H 1 ^ life || urggUH ytf\ TttW ufo II w& 
Tre 1 u^ ^ W> ar^f II H^H H^H m HKftl fw^f || 
Bg?> oo-ra ftrf to tpfe ii ^arfe sraf uf oft fe ?>tfe ii £br §3 ^it »prpf II 

(Wj^ >M (TK U^ HTf II <\ II W oft tafc HU 1 W ufe II Ufa 3TT U^ tatf* 
otfe II fo?j ^rfw ft rf?> feUH 1 ?) II ira?j U^f ?Kjt ttf 1 ?) II H3^ ^t Oh 3TT 

^tur ii furT ^f mr it nfar 11 ut Trafc w> tt^ f^rfar 11 >>tefo uuth 
»f?>fe?> fe^ 75^ ii y^sf'dil Hfw uf ^ ii ^"^^ <^ ^ M ^fe H ^ H 

ft^of oft H(W y^t ^t II Hfddld t fc^HW Hfe 75Ht II H?j off Uf ufe§ 
ufe»TO II ^^ oft^ TTC 1 faro II TO ofrfe Hoffe rRJ ^fe»F II tl?JH H^?j tt 

fy urfew ii fe vj?ft Trair h^" y^t ii ^1% dfu»r hu nfar un^t 11 ftm or w 

fefe Wt»f twfe II ("TObT gUT^t (TfK H>Tfe II 3 II H fef tat ftT UFW ?> wfi 
II H fef tat frT oft»f Wfi II H foff tat frTt>> Hf fe Ut»f II H foff tat 

ftT tfej tftnr ii h fef tat frT nrarfc Hftr ^t n uj^ u^rfc ot ta^ wt 11 

H foff tat ttT ta ^ oTt II fT?JH fT?JH oT f^r up# ii ujfe yt 3^ fet 
WfW II Uf »fU7> r (WibT Wi ftl»rfe»f || 8 || WW) WS ofd^ fe^ oTK II »T?j 

fH»rfur TTtra ufe (7K ii tafe tafe tafe m vfzu ii »rtV fTtpj »f^grr 

(TK tTtT^ II ^UTfe W?E 35\W HJTf II ta ^UBt 3^ UHt S 1 ^ II Wtt oTfe»P^ 

Htr fcftr (7K ii |33 fT^ u 1 ^ fOTK ii Hura Etr or u^3 cth ii ("roof (-w ^fj 

dlcSd'H II U II §lfflt Utfe Ok 3TT ^§ II H?j 3?) >fefe tat TTm^ II ?>3U Oftf 



66 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

SUH m ufe II W) fedTH mT SU7) qfe II 3dT3" H?7 ot Hf?) 3f?) UdJ II fSHW 
o7§ Iff % II £of HH5 UtH offe Hfe»F II dJU UTFfe (VK rrfU tffe»F II 3 1 oft 
SUH 1 ofUT ?) t^fe II (TTJbT ufu»F HUH HHrfe II £ II U^ HtfHU Ut?) ufe»Ttf II 
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»ffe yUtT oTW ofdd'd II 3dT3" H?r ot U 1 ?) »HPU II HHtWHUfe y?% II 

^urfe w?5 wt h?) ute 11 uh r<sddi<s1»nu' ?ftu mtWj 11 (TTjbr hhut Hufc yutr 

^dl^'6 II 9 II HUH t^S Hoffe Htf U^Ml £of foHtf ufe ot 3J?) dF^ II »fer 

u'H tur ntoret 11 ufe ot (7K oft ojh 1 Hfe ^nt 11 hu #h?) ofuu Hdfte II 

UH?7 HU^t ufe ufe ?% II ¥&\ H ofU?ft H^ 1 CR^ II fUUU HH UU?) dJU H3" II 
H'UHfdl UF ^U fe^H II HUH HtT FTOoT UUdFH II t || PO II Km II HU3J?> 
0>ddJ6 fad'ofd H?) HH^lft »TfV II »R[?) oft»f ("TOoT »PU ut fefe rFfe II ^ II 
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HU?j feu?J ?> rRI3 II 3H UUtf HUT ofU feFffu fe»PV3 II HH »PU7> »FU »rflr 
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CIU II HH 6T?7) fef of^TJ of^ SU II »T14?> ufe? »rHr oTUThTU II FTOoT 3^U 
>XUfH »RI T U II 3 II »ffe?J T HT HtT »nu?> »FH?> II 3U H?>H HU?) ofU ofUr ?UWHb 
II HH yU?) ofUH 1 Uf Hfe II 3H HH oft ^H ofUU tofH ufe II HH »ffeui3 

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»ru ut fuuw 11 3 11 hu feuHW yuy yutr ufe uh 1 ii hu fe?j % ofuu few 

fe II HU feUH?) feUofU feUH?) II 3U off?) off H 1 ?) off?) vxfeH 1 ?) II HU HUU 
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11 a 11 hh »w?)t h^ 1 »ry?) Trfur ^THt 11 3H or??) Hrfe hu te h? ^nt 11 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 67 

wj h^ ow wufu urate ii 3zr §e of§H ofur ot§ ^?> ii hh »ry?> »ry »rfir 

ffo crt II 3f HUT?) »RJHUT?> ofUT ^t II HZT »R[?> fu »ni?) ^TtV ?^ II 3ZT 
off?) 5^f o7§?> ofutw %& II fSHH?> fHHH ^ faHH^ II (TTiof »RJ7>t Ulfe 

tWkT »rtu ii u ii HZT »fsw »fiu »ftu HHrfenr ii fu 1 feHftr fanna - Hiw 
ii »niH off wutfri »p^h ii fey are or (Tzft iratH ii wj ^brftr £or £or sfdi^s 1 
ii 3zr off?? »ffe feH wit tw ii hzt »ni?j wu »rflr unt^r^ 1 11 hzt off?> 

oft off?> HrtSd'd 1 II W ^fe f^ ^ f^ 1 II ("i 1 ?^ *>™H off WVfu 

w 11 £ 11 tra »rfV ^fe§ wff »fbr T f ii fezr are Hfa oft?> (yHU'd 11 *-ny 
ife 3zr ^Ft dd'^d ii ot§ ?jgor ot§ H^r ik'sid ii »ra tra h^w hh^ ii 

ufH HTT 3^H t W3 II EtT HtT H 1 ?) WJW> II »fef Uof^ oft§ giji?> || yxof^ 

3w »rfir oft% £t ii $& Hat nf (-roof §it ii o ii fru »ffauT3 ^uth hzt »rfir 
ii hzt UHt uw Tfe iraHrflr ii uf ire or »mftr tntf ii f?> oft h^ 1 f?>f ?rf\ 

II »TVf\r off3of oft >X<re £tT II »R[fa 3H tUTTi 0>dHdl II faH ^t feH >>n477 
(Tfe Wt II ftTH ^t feH 3tf ftfWt II ilHH^ nfH^ »fUT7J? »fit II faf 
yW^d fef (-TOof ETH t^ II tz || P^ || H% II tfrtf tfe ot SW »T^ 

^ddid'd ii (-roof ^it uFrfem 1 " ^w otzt f^H^'d ii ^ ii »fH3iret ii »rtu oft 
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»Rft ^t fi£ HH 1 ^ II 3K ^ t^?j ?KJT fe Ufe II »R[?> Hfe Hf HUT3 lltfe II 
w off u^- tftf »rfir ^^ II Hf FW HHt t^ U 1 ^ II H HH^^rft 3^ oT ^H 1 II 
(Wjof HUW TTTFTfe oT H3 1 II ^ II tfl»f tfe HF 3 1 ot TFB II ET?j ufe»TO nf?) 1 ^ ot 
(TH II faH ^t feH otfe (5 H^ II H W ftTH H(^ tOTt II THH 3TH »f^^ ofUT 
ot t^fe II H3" fHt% ^ f(Sd H(S W?E II HT»f oft HUlfe W ot HF U^H II >ofefo 
^Ufe tWjg Hrfe II 31?) fccr?) ^>fe nfU^ II ??m ?W HE 1 dfWd'd II 

3 ii y^?> ufe g^ ufe»ro ii f^" fufe u^^ foraira ii »ri?) sraHH frt »rtu 

II ^fH^tTTHt ^f\j§ fg»fflr II ufelTO tftWJ ^ ^fe II H H ^fe§ H feHftr 
ftl»fTfe || fiqH ^t feH 75^ tHWfe II 5UTfe ofgftl Ufe ot UT^ UFfe II H?j >>fefo 
f^H offe HrfTPM 1 II oidrtd'd ("i 1 ?^ fe HrfTPM 1 II 3 II ff7J WW ufe ^t (Tfe 
II feH oft »TH ?j tent W?8 II H^bT of§ H^ 1 sfc »THt II UofH ^fV U^H U^ 



68 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

iret II feH 3" fufo (-Kit sfaf II W ot Hfo SfW fodoCd II TO tfo ^£ 
0>dtd II »f?>fe?> ytTftr UT^ ot U3" II fell fibT Htft£ ll^or H^$ II (WibT ufo 

ufe »mftr A^ ii 8 ii H'UHfdi fafo orarr >m£e ii anr w^j re re>n&E ii ^k 

(TK 33" of^T Hfe^ || UfiF ^T oT ora^ fcrf || >3ffHB" 3^?> Ufa ot 3J?> 

urf ii re> 3^?j or feff Hv>rf ii »re red" re Ore ^ ii fHt »ffaT»r?> fa?>H 

nf^^r II Hfc freH ftrat dH'^d II H?> fe£ (TTibT ^tf re^T II U II U?53 11*53 

ufe $g H^fo ii ^k (TK »f3fo ffo tpfo ii yt ara oft ret utfw n faH Hfc 

^HfeHTTO retfw II Hfc 3fo (TH Hre fe^ 75^ II E^ EdtJ H?> 3 ^f 
Wfe II Hf ^Pf dTdTT ^Wt II Ed^RT feat Ou HH^t II ^oP £oT dre H?> 

Hrftr ii (7?jbT gufo ?> »r^ftr trfa" 11 € 11 feH 3 ufo orf ot t^fe 11 fst 
d^reu^ fwfe ii f(Sd^Q hu Haw ^f fHt ii re forau 1 3 yst ft II ftTH 

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feH rf?> off otfe ?> iraWKTf II fad" fufo S 1 ^ 1 3Jf Hd 1- II ("TObT 3 1 ot of^tT 

re ii o ii Hfe ydi »fte w oft feHfe ii edn?> Ore fre3 frrHfc 11 Bd?> 

ofHW H 1 ot »f^U II H^tf EdTT?> TTCd" ufe |U II ife ^ ^^ re^?> II 
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itfm W§ ttfHd 7 Uf Urfe^f II H'UHTdl (7?)bT Ufa fwfe»T || tz || pp || jjm II 

ftr»n?j >>nq^ urfe ut»r nfftr»r?j »f^ ftoH 11 ufo torav 1 ^ 

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l^" of WUF Hte 7 II HUTO Hfj-raft ^bTH UJ3 Hrftl II »ffobT gV ?)W f^H^'Td II ?)§ 
fcfa »ffH3 l^" oT (7K II ^ft HfU" feH oT - fOTH II W) HHrftr >X?kJ3 3ZT 7^ II 
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H^t U 1 ^ II ^ II H >fefe H ^Ufe >X^ II Uffe Uffe fwrflr gfu»f gUT^ II 
trafo HrfU" »TbT T H ufe»TW II H^ ^bT l^TJ llfelfW II ^fc fefe l^^fe t 
IOTK II HHt »fftT»F 3H 1 ofd>T II ife U^t MS3 Hrftl II ^fe ?3 EZT fe^ 
HHrfU" II feH § M?) ?Klt ot 5T§ || gjg yH^ (WJbT W U^ II P II ^U 
l^?j fHfKfe HfU" ^tr || HHtW H^ (W3 HfU" ^bT II wt l^" oft H5" ot t^ II 

»rflr »ftw ?> orazr i^ 11 h^^ dw offe Ot Ow 11 Hfe ?> u 1 ^ m^zj »ihw 11 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 69 

HU^ HfeHftTtF^Hfe II tpfe dfu§ H»THT §fe Ofe II UTU UdH'fti 3UH of 
cTH II (-TOoT fe?> Hfe £u TOTH II 3 II H3" rW of £N?> Hf SUH II Tfe ffiT ot 

feuu Hfe huh ii Tfe tw H?jftr hf su?> ii hu^ fwut u*h Hfur uu?> 11 fafe 

H 1 ^ feH oft fer UU3" II Hfe SU?> HHJ Hfe ofU3" II H H ufe H5T Htf ># II 
oTU?> ofd'^d'd Uf fTt II »fefe ^H wfe Ft §UT II (TTJbT EUH?> £ftf HF HUT 
II 8 II »TtU Hfe oft»F Hf Hfe II feH UF §■ H3Tfit §3Ufe II feH F^ 3 1 ofU 
PdHbl'd II feH F># 3 1 SdoCd II »ffeof oW tftft ?>U W?5 II THH F^ feH fi£ 

tH^fe ii oT??j feoffe oT??j oTutm ufe ii »ru »rfir »nu Fuufe 11 >>feuuTfe 
tHH »rflr w?$ ii (Toot feH h?> »rfV w^ ii u ii hu^ f? nrtV ^dd'd 1 n 
hu^ ^?> »rflr QwkPUt ii huto hhutt w op 3?^ ii »ru?> hh »nu ut h^ ii 
»t^7j h 1 ?? fe^ 3w wfw ii nrftr^ronuT oft?>t H T fe»r 11 hf it Hfe »ffeut 

UU II H toff ofU^ H »Til oft II »ffU[»F »rt »rtUT»f H^ II (WibT w w% 3 1 
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II »TfV tHWfe fi£ Uf Hfe II §U Wiis d^4d ufe^f II Hfe?) Hoffe THH tut 
F3T?f II U>> % 1% H?> »Tfe»F II tHH UHrfe Hf HdTf 3&?EW II H?> »T^?J 

or feu H»rf ii h?> it Hfur fefe »rt <7f 11 »rtu Hoff Hoff ofu tth^ ii (Toot 

feH H?j off H^ 1 (-JHHoTU II tz || 33 II Km II UU 1 Uf W&fcPW UU 1 H 7 oT 
(7f II (-TOof yur l|Tfe»fT yt it gj?7 UTrf II ^ II »fH3iret II yt UTU or Hfe 
fll^H II UTU^UH feoffe offe % II HTfH W?R THHUU 3TTW II H?> >H3U oft 
f3U tW II »TH »ffe? fe»PUTU 3UUT II H5 H?T oft yfe H?> HUT II »Ty tfe 

iT?>3t ofuu ii H'UHfdi »rarfe hw 3uu ii ufe q?j it ^tu ^u f^u ii (-roof mu 

yt (WHoTU II <\ II ^H OTW HUH »fTO II H'UHTdl FH UUH^E II ("iUof fe^fe 
fcTUU fftf II W> 3ttW >5fte UH Utf II fefe fe3^U (Vd'fei ^of II ^of UU 
W it U3T >M^bT || 3RTW ETHSU Ut?j ufe»TO II EtT FH?J UU?) tofUU^ II THHfe 
tHHfe (7H W ^U II (-TOof Ht»f of feu »ItnU II 3 II §3H TObT WH it ^U?j II 



70 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

»fywter ms £ftr sh?> ii w& oth 1 ^ uh fere 11 »pfir 3t &&u foHd'd n 

H^tf rfte?> TTSW 3 1 ST % II W t Hfe tfW Ufa ^3J II H H HW WTOU ^H 
II Hf?> Hf?> ttnre oft Uf UPH II UUl£ 3RTW HU^ it >T$ II (WibT fqt fe?> it 
Hi* II 3 II H^fo % Hfc HUjtf »fi> II offo ferail 1 U^ »FU f>w£ II fafc Ul£ 
t^ ^£ H^ 3?> II >5fte (TH H'UHfdl W) II HW> ^£ UTO^ II IJ37> UFt fi^of 
oft ^ II »Ttf HtTW faoP3" 3" ^U§ II ^K (7K Hfc ^TW ofU§ II offo UTTf 
efe»F ufe U^t II (TOdT fcszft ^U UK^t II 8 II UF oft QH6?6 of^ 7% Ht? II 
H'^U'cS Sof'dld 3T5 II HtfH?>t HUtT Utfw 3J7> (W II ftTH Hfe ^H H U3" 

fotn?) ii h^ fes 1 3 1 oft m?> ufe 11 ycp?j mv yai^ tt^ wfe 11 h^ §■ fu 
u^ i^hh^ ii gufo ?> ut »r^?> w§ ii ufo n?> tpfc ^ tT?> Hfe 11 (W>or 
faHftr u^vfe ufe ii u ii 3h h% Mr ?>^ foftr 11 gftr fapx 1 ?? h^ su ftrftr 

II fefe»F 3U HUT U^ fa»P?> II ftT»P?> §H3 §3K feHcTO II ^fo U^W ofHtf 
ygPH II H3" it Hfa HUW 3" fETH II HEf 33f 33" 5F iTH 1 II HH^Ht £of 

feR^H 1 ii for ^w feH H?> it yftf 3?> ii ura 1 (-roof (Th sb?> Ht>> h£ ii £ ii 

feu f>>tn?> tTU Hf?> otfe II H3" tT3T Hfa 3 1 oft UTfe Ufe II UT^ UtfW (TK gf>> 

g^ ii frrfi-ffe tito - ire mrst ii Hura H3^ it^s ufo (7K ii utfw 3UT3" it 

Hfe f^H II otfe WIT H'UHfdl tKt II Tfe tofl|T ^ tTH ^ ft II W it HHHtof 
oraK Ufe U 1 ^ II HHT H^fe (Wjof § »T^ II 9 II ttTH Ht?j ^H Ht 75^ tftfe II 
feH rf?> »rt Ufa Uf ^tfe II tl?JH >ra?) 3 1 oT E^ tT^t II E753" ^T ddof'W 
fqrt II fo^Htf H^ 1 »fte 3 1 oft OTft II ^ (W Wi W?U HH'Tjt II EtT tUT 
fe^ t 5^K II WH (7K tTJ^HW 3 1 ot of^K II H5" ^ fu 3 1 oft H^ 1 g?)t II ("PTibT 
fel 3Tfe (7K HT=f>f7>t II t: || P8 || 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 71 



^^Hfddld IWfe II 



— w«k 



fegfe o^k dt ^tet offo forav 1 >to mi ii ^fo cfe 1 uzr feH ^ nfe »p£ y^ 

— — — m\ w\ 

oft wh ii ifr> et § ^u^t fat ?> »rt om ii iro fe h^ ^ww^Jl fifflftr 

(Tift ^H II Ufe (7ZT ?j fwfrtf H 1 ^ of? iret>tf PdHd'H II fo? U[fo Ufa df? ?> 
irai^t ^fe ("JUT^" ft UTH II HH HfeM ?ttf 3TT H5 £zft H^ tTH II U3" H»THt 
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}fr>U H»THt Hfaf U^ faH of 0>dtJM CTK II <\ II 3fe UlfW ttf^lflw ut >X&f 
UJ^ II H? rW fafo irefrtf ^H?) 1- (TK 3S 1 " II frTfc UrfW U^ WV& »r£ 



72 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

feHftr 31^ II fe ftf?> feH fe tite& fa^H 1 H?JH fl^ II Hfe Hfe HZft»ffo 

yfenr gfenn" f%fe i^ 11 h uf fefe ?> nr^t te^ 1 §y are* 11 fktf ^f%»r 

H Uf fsV ^UT H5 1 " II Ufa E^H?> dt§ H?> fiB^ 1 ??m Hf»TH H?) 7 II 3fe ftrai* 
HU?feHt Urfe ?5UF II P II tH^ tffefc fe§ ^t»F fiW Oh f^T 

ii ufo hw> y^y r^H'Pd t rf Hrfenr % 11 y=r ora? ?> Hfar crt ufo 

»ff%?) T Ht % II Utffo Utffo HdTWt H5T ft TO HZT II feoTH ufo it (Th fa?> »fif 
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fe?> oft fo^Htf Hfe II (WJoT oft l^" ^?J3t l^" ftfiKT U^vfe Ufe II tH 1 ** HU^ 1 
3* fiff H 1 % §3 Ufa Hfe II 3 HUfo^fe fl^E 1 fi3t>tf ftTH »# Hfe fotfo II 
Ufa Hfl^ £^fe tffaT»T feH ?j ^Ht afe II H^bT H3t (TK U3" f?> ?53T (TZft Hfc 
II ^3T H# 6'd'fyl 3§ Hfo ^fo II H Ufa fit H oft HEt tfl»f o^ffo II H ufe 

oftt »n^ Hfe ora1»fftr tffo 11 »n^ wt»r ^ ftra f%ffe fef i^fo 11 h 1 ^ % 

mnj& FTOor ^UT H t^ || ^jfo ^ ^gffer fog xjg\ ftTH it 
^UT HEffo II 8 II »fW 3^ feH 753T Ufe (7^ ?j fiw irfH II HdlHk<S mV 

fe^rfar it >f5H Hut »th ii tw ^fe feara)^ urfe ireta hh oft ^h ii ^zf hIh 

H«tHHH fofWH II t£ fed'il USH^t ffe 3tft UTHt t^H II fa?> it TTO 

i^tw h e^rt ufe tfWH ii drfo forav 1 1^" wmst §t ^h?> ufe Hf»TH 11 u^ 

3g fe EtT it ("nft ("TOoT oft »ra^ T fTT II »f T H T f H^fe 1 feH ?53T ftTH Hfe Ufe 
3^ fc^H II U II H^fe HdTft oT^St ed?j dTHtf frlf Hf»Tf II H^ 3?> dH 1 HU 

^ feit (TK wrf ii faftf»r dV ojd'fs^ feHfe h# s 1 ^ ii ufe >>rte |e 

HO'^il t^fe H 1 ^ Ul^id'd II ^ te UF Hfaf Hffe»F TTHH y^T »Rff ufo 
f^75§ ^ >R7 ^B^ 1 orafi-f f^W^id'd II fr^ft Htft^ Uf Urfew Zlf fe?j it HU 
yfrtd'd II ("TObT Ufe tft Hfe»F offe Trafe H^'did'd II HW fe?) 7 
Hd'dlil ttl?j ^K (TK ffe ZTf II ^ II ^?fe 5^fK ^ft'ilw EH 75UF ^ II 75tT 

Htura yi'r«»n" orattT <7ut it^ 11 te fefe ^zr fy^HHl te tw ofUHfe £j3" 11 

IJoffe ewfef?) E^ HH feH ?> %& #3" II Sfe t(#§ ftft Hrftl ftl?) faf 75UF ^3 
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THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 73 

3f ii o ii wrf?) Oh fHfEE 1 fef fi-ftftw Efe nfe 11 nfo Efe fti»rH e^tt?j 

Ul^t oTET »Ffe ftwt Hrfe II HE HZTHt Oh ot E§ fe?> ot tfW U^E II fe UE 

fef m ireim eht (Tet t^fe ii ft^t E T fw Oh eh h feufe g^ nrurfe 11 
»ry fe»rftr fent ofEfe $e uf wfe ftfe 11 h Efe drfe ftwEtw 1 fH feffe 

ofEfe ?> t^fe II UE fe^ EH 1 ot ?>ET (WJoT Efe Hdi'fy II >MH Htft ^HET»F fr!?^" 
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fe»TUfe HE ^BT II %Htr u£ mi E fiUffe H?JH f%HET II ftf?) Hfe of§E Efe UTE 
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^ftT $fe H8" HffEE EET HE II offeof E# H'UHdl fd(SHfd HE HE II tf II HfWfE 

Hffe HEEtw 1 Efe feE nfe t5Et»FE ii fe?> dft he 1 few aret fa HTEfe 

HREt»FE II E?> H?> Hffe»F ET-T faf Hfe WH HE?5Et»nE II H^ 

h^ e wtt\ h ^ufe ry^wJlmrE 11 fe?> e^ ?> otee fnt h hh it ^fa i^»te 

II fa?>t wfaw UE »Tl^ T H fenfe feE tf^TE II E3?j H#EE W& Efe otfe 
fe^ H^tttFE II (TTJbT W Cffe fe?j l^" HE5T Efe ITEtttTE II HTUffe UE 

ni'd'tii 1 ^Efe 7) w>m\y>vtj 11 ^o 11 uftr Etrf ?> femrEt drfe fafw Efe 

(TE II H?> Hfw ddrt'dfytJ EEHfe ^5ET^ T H^ II §E UtfW URI^ E^ H? 1 
H»THT 75TE II feftf»f OfE ?j HofET Infe Hf 3J^ UTE II HE E flffft EE iH?5t 
HET Utfe mm II off UTTE 7^ U'dddPH EEfe ?j f%S^»TE II EffE W§ W=T 
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^7F^ HEE HtT fHH EtfH tlJE^E II ^ II H^ HH^ TW HfW m\ offe 

fyH(S'6 ii Efe or (7H fenrfe nfe he?^ ?> offe e 1 ^ ii h?jh oteh hw §ee h?j 

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Efe EtT (TET Hffe II fe^ U7)t -^ef'dlil ^E UTfEnF ETE E^ II THfe HEtm 1 



74 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

huto areut gfte" atf^e »wfe 11 ufe hu 1 »re§ ?> fen^t ^nt ^w wt ?> wfe 11 

UW3" U755 H^'fdGrt foddtt feBT»f^ W?5 II HH 1 ^ H 1 ^ 3" ^ftpm SUfe ?> 
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ftTH ?> few ?> HHrfe II ^3 II fafc fefe (VH fwfw fe?j ^ oHtT H# II 

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3t II TOJH Uf H^ H?> >>fefe ^ Ut II >fU fe^H H33" ^ frTH off ?jufe 

oft ii (-roof Hit e^h e 1 ?) forau 1 ofgrr ut ii °i8 ii ^ ii 



^^Hfddld UHffe II 

H^t Hfedld mi^ 1- Ufe fHH^t fe?> H% §5 II ^TU fe»Pfar H3^t U^ HftT t^t 
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Hftr ?> ^nfo Is ii ufe to fm §?> ?> iretw yfe fe£ Hfe is ii »fu cn^t 

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te W |75^ oftftw fet IS II (W>bT oft ^3t»f Ufe TreH?> ^tf 1 $5 II ^ II 

tfl»r oft fazw h h^ ufe hThh yw »op§ 11 >rafe fftefe wd'u* 1 h^ op 
»nu T ^ ii HHt Ontw feH of? oft W& feH ira^^ ii %w »raTH ttraFfa 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 75 

£lT fef >% ?> U'd'^'d II ^ H 1 feH ^Ht H3 1 oft ufe S 1 ?; || ut?r (TH §»Ftf 
^ Ute QlJ'did'd II »Tfe tWUt d^fU 1 Hf (TK okH'd II oftHfe otfe ?> tTC^t 
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oTf ^^ fe?> ot HU yfrtd'd II P II 7% »fd 7 Uf7J HU H^ 1 H^T of 1- gtffifc II tftf 
ftff fafe T^W offo fed*! 1 fe3fe fi% II UT3" HSUt ttTd^lftW HUt>tf fodXtf % 
II oftHfe oTU5 ?> WZ\W Ud>te 3>% II ftTH Hfo ^ (Sd'fei H ofdlw Wttis II 

tfl»r oft ^ y^tw ftra H»TKt % ii ??m tflt nflr u^t #tr h# 
zft u? ii fe?> tfe fag ?> f%Ht h dfd»r ut % ii 3 ii H^a - dw m mi >k 
fo>p^t nrf ii ufo §3 URft h?> >>fet nflr nflr tite* <t§ 11 drfo forav 1 u^ 

»PIf5t Wi m\ Hfaf HHrf II faf f d^rfd" fef dTF 3d 7 fe 1 OcT trf II f^H 

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^ffarwi fycS'Hcs hk <hs %% >xutk w^f 11 n?> fefew 
dtd" ftwtw (TTibT £<t H»rf ii Hd^ oTfewpsr te fefc dtd" UdTJt UT^" ot urf 

II 8 II <\ II 



aif^t oft ^g- Haw u 

d^fe oTHWt Htret oft ^ oft gf?> fyfe 3P^t 
^^Hfddld yHrfe II HRoT H? U II 

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q?> h^" ute ufe dtd" it ui^ ur^§ 11 ufe tw ^nj^t (Wjot ^^sf'dil u^§ 



76 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

II 3 II Uf^t II rT 3g ^t H 37F H§ 3^ W& II f H3" Hfr ^ ^ddti 1 H^ 
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ii *\ ii h§ y ii ^f h% ofut uPddPd urafe ure^ ii (-toot ?>rfe ?> erf nfe 
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fftetw ufo nrte s£ ii sth fn wf hu nfar mF ^ ii orfo fegu 1 ufe »n^t 

Ufa »TfV ira^ II ("TOoT ttS 7) WU&\ £ Ht ?> tf£ II 3 II TTOoT Hi U II ?>7>or 

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THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 77 

tTH 1 II (TOoT HHt Htfe»F frTf>> fe US 1 ^ 1 II £ II HfidT Hi U II tW^tW HU^tW 

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78 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

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THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 79 

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tffar»r fyf h# otfe ii ^ ii Hi y 11 wfez M fe3 (TH htui oft sra^ 11 

("TOof ygHHf flfTH^ f3Hfe fy ?> Hfe II 3 II yf^t II H^ 33 1 Utf^U Hfe Hf 

iff?) ftt ii ytfe 753ft ufe (7H fe§ £ UH3t w& ii ^h few yrfl»r rf 



80 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

fwfe W ?> h3 II ^t ufe m H3I^ Ef of£ ?> g# || (W>or Hf?> 3f>> W§ &J 
fe W of§ $3 || P^ || ^ || HIT ofrd 



^§^Hfddld OTfe II 



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fe?> feftr ^hw U3 - At ^nt ii fef iretw ufe ^k hu^ ii <\ n uzrf n &m 

7) %ftl H3T H§" HrfW II f§ HEd" 7TC3" grfW II f£ OT5fe tT?)H UT^fW II 
^ II UH3T Ult ^fbT fedl'H 1 II ftHofg H^ ?>H tf^H 1 II Uffe H^3T ufft o* ^H 1 

ii 3 ii ^h ooft ezt feH h^t ii h^ tur fur s<t (T^t ii ftrf ?>3ufe gut 

itf^T II 3 II ^ 3HW H off Hfddld y^'few 1 II ufe H fe? oft H ufe few 
3UTH 1 ^fw II tT?> (Wjof UfH Hrfe HHrfew II 8 II fe?> fefe 3Htf U3" At 

wz\ ii fe§ iretw ufe mi mrz\ 11 ^ 11 3tf§ ew ii ur§3T ut»tM huw u ii 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 8 1 

fef fHtw fy feH or u^t ii w nfe nfe Hut»ffo ufw HHt ii uruyftr §3U 
H?>Htr ufe ret 11 ^ 11 fay u 1 ** »rtu ^y ufettru 1- 11 fey ?>ut err it 

Ud^d'd 1 II <\ II UU^ II H^ Hfe ^U§ ^ ttf&H 1 II 3 1 f yfe H§ ufe »fftB T 
II §U Hf fa? TO H ^ddd 1 II 3 II H?)Htr H§ fa?> ^tft fenTH 1 II SU H?>t 

3^fe gfe feufe fefwH 1 n hh 1 gtrrfu ot trrr 11 3 11 £ftf euy Hfe ^fe»r 

fedl'H 1 II Hf ?>eUT »ffe»F gUK Uddl'H 1 II H?> (TTiof oft ufe UU?) WW 
II 8 II P II 0<\ II UTf^t UT»TUUT HUW U II ofEt H?>H ^£ offe UHUF II ofEt H?>H 
UTtT Ht?> ofUUF II ofEt H?>H Utft HUU ufe§ II of^t H?>H !ku fetf Hfe§ II 

<\ ii ftra HditilH ftra?) oft sut»r ii tew feu £u Htrafrr 11 ^ 11 urrf 11 

ofEt H?>H HW fefe offe»F II ofEt H?>H UTU^ fefe tffe»F II of^t H?>H WV offe 
flffw II TOf tjQd'Hld Hfe fHTfew II P II H'UHfdl ^fe§ H?>H UU'Ufe II 

offe h? 1 3H ufe ufe uruHfe ii fe»rfur h 1 ?? fs ttffeH 1 ?? 11 nte Hufe euuru 

UU^ 1 ?? II 3 II H fe U»F H 3^ t UUJ II »f^U ?> EH 1- oTut HUJ II 3 1 fawtw H 1- 
tfe fawfe II ofU (-TObT ufe ufe 3J^ UFfe II 8 II 3 II 2P II Ulf^t UT»TUUT 
HUW U II ofUH ffa Hfe t»fU (TK II UU?) ufe HH 1 ^ oTH II ^5 U^fe 
H3 HH =pH II fe3" UF?fe ufe ufe 31^ WH II =1 II ufe ufe (TH »fefe ffe 
tpfe II HtujU oPUH $U H^fe II <\ II UTFf II »RJ?> U5" faf UU H'sU-l'rt II 3 1 f 

euuru u^fe h 1 ?? ii fbrfe fa»reu wm\ fe»rur 11 Tfe htt oft ^gst wur 

II P II HUH tft»f Ufa W ot Urfe II oft* ?j f%ft H§" ot W?E[ \\ fl|^ gfe UTU 
feH oft §3 II few HrfU Ut §Ut tfe II 3 II W& feoffe offe feH ^ WS II U^ 
oft »TfUf»f Hfe offe H 1 ^ II UTU ot HUfe fe^^U WU II Ufe Ufe (7K ("TObT Hfe 
t^U II 8 II 8 II P3 II UTf^t UT»TUUT HU^ U II UTU oT HUT? H^ 1 »ffe?J T Ht II 
UTU it HUfe of^t HH ^Ht II mu oT HU^ tft»f it TTfUT II utu it sufe uu utk it 
UfUT II <\ II H Ujfe Et»f H H?j it orfH II 7fe oT oft»F Hfe offe Hrfe II <\ II 
UUrf II UTU oT HUcJ »13W »f^U II UTU it HUfe of^ fH tu II 3IU oT HUcJ oBU 
7i W?E II UTU it HUfc Ufe ot fS Uirfe II 3 II UTU of HUcJ tfl»f it HW II UTU oT 

gu^ »i(7H it (7H ii utu it Hufc ?jufor ?> ut 11 utu it gufe uh?t >tfte ut 

II 3 II UTU of HU?) UUUI3 TWfe II UTU it HUfe ?j »rt Urfe II feH H?j u£ 



82 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

»Ffu fofira II (TO5T Hfddjd HU 1 ufe»Ttf II 8 II U II 28 II Ulf^t W^ 
HUW U II fafe offe 1 H 1 ^ ^ 3B7J II UTdF Hftl wftiW fafe offe tT37J II frTf?> 
Ut?ft HF 1 ^fe»TFt II T3H UF off »TS UU^ fa»THt II ^ II dHSW d>> TTO tT?> 

u^f ii urd" frrfo ^wr uhh ftrw^f h <\ \\ gurf N fafc 5^ y^ §■ ^5^1 N 

frTfe offe 1 irHdS" ^ HdB 1 II ftTH UdH'Tti <# fcfa l^t II H Uf H?> ^ (VWdd 
(TZft II 3 II frffo #>f ftiH^ off W§ II frTf?> Et»F ftiH 1 ?) off H 1 ?) II fafe ofM 
HF Ud?> »f T H T II fHHdf fe?> tf?> T^H fdld'H 1 II 3 II frTH UT^fe Hrfew fHttof 
of^t II 3JTd" UFFfe >>ff>[? to WZ\ II ofg (Wjof feH 3" fofg <7Ut II 
gnffKPt off H'tt'Jl II 8 II £ II 9U II UTf^t UPX 1 ^ HUW U II feH oft H^fe 
(TZft ^f HUT II fH § wfe off ?> U3T II 3HT tH»f^U ^tf ffa feoPd" || E^ 
»fU?> oft gTtfTKT^ II <\ II HtU W) Ht d^H d^H dTdf II U[fe wfe §f j^ ftfa- 
II <\ II dTPf II feH oft £of H?> Hftl d^U II UTd" of H3? »ff>f? dH U^ II »T?fe 
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II 3 II Hd^ Htf 1 HU WW £u II 3JTd" fu^H H?» Hftl WJ II W off d^H 

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y ii gfe ufe oth 1 fn^t % ii hu 1 y?ft? f£ hu % 11 ^i ^fe uiw 
H'UHdi ii uwrn frrf war ^aj 11 <\ 11 ufe ufe ctk wjb h?j Hrfe^ 11 »rarr>j 

HW 3jfe Urfe Qd'fdG II <\ II ^TPf II offe oftdH7J W) HT3W 5^ II WW tT?5H 

ot foTRfetr ur^ ii Hra feu 1 ?) Cr^ h?> wfu n »ra f^?> of^ off wfu II 3 II UF 

»W?> HH 3£ ufe»TO II Ud?j U^t H^bT UTO II mT?T offfe oft£ »W?» H^ II 
tHKfe tHHfe tHHfe dlid'H II 3 II £ot Hfe ^ot HF 5^ II U^TJ ufe ^tU§ m 
W?5 II 3jfe yt Hf F^K fofrfew II ufe tHHdH (-TOof HU Uffew 

ii 8 ii t ii oo ii urfsft ut»tM huw u ii »rar& y^ tH u 1 ! u% n # f^t h 
ife ^ ut ii tHzr uu Hftr §fe wr^ 11 f?> ^ eut^ fe^ft f?> h 1 ^ ii «i 11 §^ 

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fetu»f trfe ii <i ii u§ gcr§ u§ h 1 ^ t^ 11 UHdft fth of§^ uto ud" 11 u§ 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 83 

Ufe uf 33§ fmF& || oJdld'd ?> it faUTW II P II W47>t Ulfe fi-ffe 

»p0 frt ii fe»r ir oft fw »rftr ^tt) 11 te te w^fu fss fss ^aw 11 

WW WW TJW ora HUT?^ II 3 II H3" fa? 3^ f ofdld'd II >% (Tift faf 
U'd'^'d II ETH »RJ?> off utH E 1 ?? II of5f ?> f%Ht (WJof (VH II U II t II Pt || 

urfsr uj»rM huw u 11 »fer H3?> ?Kft uh f^^ 1 11 sun fa»reu »rura ^g 1 

II Zjfo oft ^ fo^Htf $3 II UF oft E3URT H^ 1 ^ II °l II Wi At URT Ufa (TH 

or §?f ii 3# ?> wit 3^ #w ii ^ ii grrf ii faf tftjH i wmz wfu 11 
wjora ute Eturftr ii »rarf?) rite or tfTufa etr 11 (Th mss Hfc 
u^^ Htr ii p ii fnfo frfe §t w> oft fo»m 11 yg?> ut Hurat »th ii #w <7ut 
hk^ 1 st? ii >>rte (7K nfo urayfo >fe 11 3 11 cvy »fftjg HHt h?> ire 11 offo 
tofdir farj »rfo fe^t ii ufo ufo (TK h 1 it ftrat ^ 11 ey e^t? fezr (-roof 

?)H II 8 II ^O II 3t II UTf37 URfM HUW U || gU3 E^H offo H?> ?> »fU[W || 

»fer sv £fo ?Kr y^xw 11 uh of?5? QdfcG r^fo M 11 §^r fa?jH §fe ^hh 
§^t ii ^ ii fe ufo 3H?> £tff fyww'3 ii four 3?> four u?> >rfe»F nfur w$ 

II °l II 3TFf II faf fydl'dl ot fofo UttTfo ETK II §fe tfHK ot tujfo f?> ftf 
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^ fllfe U^ II ^ tfHH oT gnjr ffe ^ II §H $3 oP^fe grtfr off || feH 
otlTOoTff'jljtll^llfoHoTTgTHfeHoTT HH?) 7 II trTfe T-Ffw Et?)t fefe 
WFt feH?^ II »Tfo fo(7^ »ffo oft W?H II ("TOof l^ >MW VX^rfa 

ii 8 ii <w ii tzo ii urfst uj»rM hu^ u ii ski tur Hrfenr g^ fafo Otft ii 

of?5H ofTUTU fH»P7)U $tft II HU^ >TObT ufe £fw tP?> II 3 1 " §" (TZft H^ fsUS^ 
II ^ II H TW H off jfe dd'^d II feH?^ ft H^ feUH 1 ^ II <\ II giPf II >MH 
l^?j UHfe »m^t II %W UE^ AtT H^fo (T^t II ?J3 (Tfeof »Ttrt UFfe»F II 3 1 
Hfo Hfe TT3^ 7) UrfevM 1 II P II 3tf3 H^ 1 H5?j E75t§ II HUTtf A^ HE^ Wt^ II 
»T^3" tefe ^tl?j oft Wt^ II W> 7) Ht^ UmJf TJ\W II 3 II offo fofgil 1 T%?j 
Hf offu»F II H^^ HtT fe^ W?& Wfo»f II H'UHfdl ufe ofldd£ UFS^ II ofg 
(TTJof ^^si'dll UTS^ II 8 II W ot Ufe q^ H^t HZfcF II UF fofgi|T ^ H'UHPdl 

A^ ii ^ ii gu 1 ^ EH 1 ii °ip ii t:^ ii ut§3t amnttt hu^ u ii i^ trt fezr 



84 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

3?j HU 1- II HUfe HUfe §W filJ^U 1 II UH of?5H PdldHd of &W II % ?> irefotf 
U^ ot OT II ^ II of??) H fefa te ^H ^ UFfe II of??) H Hfe fan 3U feu 
Hrfe II ^ II UU^ II H ^WFt H HU 1 H^ II Hf oftf H fet HH 1 ?) II t^t (TUt 
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??H t^t offe offu^ II H'UHdl ot ?7UT ?)fe II W=T tjQd'Hld fHH 1 #fe II 3 II £ot 
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ajfe yu 3 1 ot oj^ frw ii 8 ii °i3 ii tzp ii urf^t uj»fuut huw u ii nf feuv 1 
^ hwt iretw ii m feuy 1 ??h fawfrtf 11 m feuiF §■ w> st 11 nf 

fofULF 3" U§H 33 II <\ II 3K W?U 3§ WUTU H? II UH 3 off ?> ut £? II ^11 
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^t H HU HUH 1 II HUH fetT?) 31^ 3H UT H^T II f wfuz H?bT ^fU^fe II 3 II 
H?> 3?j feUHff Ufe ufe ufe II HUH Htf 1 U^f HdHPdl II (TfH §U UU H?j U'H 1 
II feu cffow (TTJbT offe tTC 1 II 8 II ^8 II t3 II Uff^t UJ»TUUT HUW U II 
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fellHTUT II <\ II UUrf II U feu? f U^ 3J^ UTf II fen** fen** ufe ufe ufe 
fwf II »T?) ?) H?frtf of3U rF^W II H'UHdlfd ^sJ'dfl U 1 ^ II P II »TS UUU 

feu? nnurftr 11 ifuhuh sw nrurfcr 11 nkr fu 7 hu 1 HU^t 11 ufe uj^ w^s 

UH?) »f>Wt II 3 II H?JHUfe Hf^t ^W fW Ot II feu UH U 1 ^ HUfe ?j gf II 
»T?j 7) UH ofH 75# ?j WHt II ofU FTOoT UJU 3$ U HU 1 ^ II 8 II °W II t:8 II 
dTf^t UJ»TUUT HU^ U II H?> HEU 3^ H'tft Hffe II feH UT Hd HH? nRI^ II 
feH Ut ^3fe H?)l»f3 HTU II dT^?> HTlfUT tT oT fu 1- feT^U II ^ II (TH UH?) ot 
ot PdQd'dl II ttffHH #H7J ofU VXRTUT II <\ II UU^ II H^ 3^ »fUtft H^ ofUlH II 
of??j H HUffe feH offe §lH II Urfe fiUff ^fe HU 1 §U II of^ H Hc^ H Hf^ 1 
HU II P II HUW HRT oT fe?j fefe Urf II of??j H fefe te Ffefe HWt II f ^¥ 
TFU W ot otfe ^iH'3 II of??> H E 1 ^ ^ H^U II P II yHH ^rJS feH UJU UrfeW 
II mm UH?) H 1 ^ fetfWfe»F II offe feULF HH H^ Hrfe II ofU ?F?)bT UfU ot 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 85 

tHrftr ii 8 ii <\€ ii tin ii urf^t huw u ur»rttt 11 tfe fe?>H gt feor aw ii 

UF off tT^ HU zft HUF II SOT (TK dft§ ffc ^Hf?> II fevfe »fUF^ ufo ot 
tWH(V> II <\ II Ufa Hfal" ^ W) 3?> Ut II UT^ yt oft H3?>t 14% II Til ^TFf II 
S^ ofHtf »T3H »TO^ || ^ PcSd'dPd ^TftrnnbT^ || £ot S?5tJ £ot PdQd'dl II 
»f^f ?> tWiftr fe O^of'dl II 3 II UW HUT UUf 3" HbT§ II H^ 1 »ffelI3 HUT 
»ff tpt II EtHftr H3" Hftl H^ ^ 37J§ II U^TUH of §fe fa»T?) qg§ || 3 II 

H3?> oft HftjK 1 of??) ^tP7>f ii nrarrftr tftr fe fafe ?Kft tWif 11 otjh Hfa 

tofdlF oftH II life H3?> oft ??m UtH II 8 II °o II t:£ II Ulf^t UTnFttt HUW u 

11 f A^ 1 Htr fzft A^ 1 At? 11 f A^ 1 utey 3K Hfar ut? 11 f Att ufe fff A^ 1 

URJST II 3^ fe few 7) WZ\ tt& II Til f At ?5W> f At u 1 ?* 11 f At 
wftt f At tr?j II T II 37Ff II faf 3K STO fe? Ut ^TJTT II H 3K ofUZT HHt 

Aftr ofd?^ ii hzt Otff 3U 1 hh ^h^ ii 0>d^Q tw nuf 3^ 3tw ii p ii f 
Att ^? fcftr f ^f ii tur grr f H?jftr »w T f 11 f Att h^ 1 hk nfar s^tw 11 

f Att §3 f ff A^ 1 3bft»f || 3 II W> 3?> >>fefo 3UT fwfe»F N >jgy ^t^t 
UT^ 3 UrfeW II Hfddld 3 fefe»F fe £ot II (7?)or ?H ufe ufe Ufe ^t 

ii 8 ii Tt: ii tip ii urf^t urnrttt huw u ii fawj? ^*f hst fdHbi'd 11 

fw^US H^T (^of W^H 1 ^ II fmnj& U?> f6dU6 OftT H^ 1 II Htf fwtft 

fwufa ^ ii ^ ii Hrfew fa»ny3 gy iraortt 11 h? Hteftr w fe 3>ptt 
ii t ii gTF§ ii fami? »nraftr or h 1 ^ 1 ii fa»ry^ u^ of?5? Hfar ^h 1 ii 

fe»Rf3 UHfe U|# »ff ^HH 1 II fa»Tl^ |U H^?> HU HH3 1 II 3 II JWB ffK 

tor »if tur ii fa»ry3 ufte ?re gfe tw ii fa»ry3 Ah huw HtuM 11 ife ^s 

fwWlJ& »fftl»M II 3 II fWU3 ofdK oft Uf ^W II fWjfe fdldHd fe»Rf^ 

§ew ii »nu^ fyQd'd fa»ny3 fezr t^fe 11 h^" fe fewus fe ufe tur ^3" 

II 8 II H3?> ot TO of^ Ufe grfe II 3 1 off 5RF W H^ II ofZT 
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ur»rttt miw u ii fim ?>te u^ feRfe feora 11 h?^ h^ Hfe ffc ¥fe^ 11 

3TW HHt &fe >flt TFfe II Hc^ Afw Hrfenr ftHHTfe II °l II feH fe Hftl 
oTHt tTOT3 ^t II W^B ^HS §U »RI?)t 7?t II <\ II ^F§ II HUTO Ht^t »Rlt 3TT 



86 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

ws\ ii ftRT »fy?> oft trafo 7) ws\ 11 yHtSd'd ug y<^'d 11 h?> ?>UTfo ut 

bdld'd II 3 II f?> § grf WV ?> H 1 ^ II f?j t ^t >% ?j W?\ II E^fe fH»F5U 
7? §fe 3U§ II H'UHPdl §fe ?H3 ^H U§ II 3 II offe fegil 1 ftftr H^^RTfe II 
H3?> life H^ fotF?) II HTO Utft HPddJd Hfaf II (WJoT HW TOIH ot ^ffaf 
II 8 II H tM ftTH Uf fcraUTO II feZT UHT HTO q?> H 1 ^ II =111 ^TPf EH 1 

ii 30 ii ttf ii urf^t amrM huw u ii w it ^ftr tn?> yttd'A 11 h 1 it t:fr hutw 

HU 7 ?) II H 1 of oft»F Hf fef Ufe II feH §■ wfo (TZft otfe II ^ II ofU 3M 
»RJ?> HPddJd W?U II oPH HH^ £fe PcSd'Pd II °l II ^TFf II HF § 
fu fF of tddd'd II HUTtf F3B" W of ?FH WPf II H3H IwHl? U^T) H?>t II W 

oft hf 1 wife ujfe ■%& ii p ii fog fnms ftr i^ 1 ^ff 11 ftm frn-raB" hh fef ?> 

oft II ftTH fHH^ U3 Hot Ut II ftTH fHH33" f^ Wtt B% II 3 II H3" HF 1 off 
HE 1 HoFf II Ufe Ufe ^>f H?i TO WPf II ofg (Wjof >^ gst »ra^fH II H5 
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tddHPrt »fflf7> Ps^'dl II HPddld #£3" ufH H^t II HPddld Hfaf cTOT H?> #tf II 

>tff>f? s 1 ^ urayftr #$ n «ui nf trar h 1 ^ 1 w hu Hftr ^§ 11 Htew Hrfe m^ §■ 

IJ¥ fP§ II «\ II gTP§ II H3" UTFfe HU Ufa (T^ II H3" HH^ Ufa oflddfS UF§ II 
Tfe Ifflrfe HUTtf EtT fu$ II H3" UHrfe W> 3" g£ II 3 II H3 tofl|T ^ f>^ HU- 

m*y — -K — •«« 

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^tfTKj^ ^ftr ^fe Itje 1 ?) ii Etr ^^^ fa?>H t ^^k ii »n^ h^ ^ offe o^k 

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THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 87 

wit wz fa»n?> ii fH^ftr of^H Htft ufe guffi 11 w e 1 ^ 1 Hfeura ora^ 11 ^ 11 

H Htf^H 1 ftT <7K t^Pt II offo toT^U 1 f3H Hfaf ?HW% II 
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»rt fe^rfar ft43 »res w& 11 mr it nfar u^suh us^ 11 p ii w> §ufo u^ 

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it ufo cvf ii 3 ii toih faf wz\\ utfe ii fc^HW orast H^t ^tfe ii urfe yt 

ftfc»F >>rfq»rgT || (TtjoT oT Uf >>fy^ »RI T ^ T II 8 II 38 II tf3 II wM\ UT»rM 
HUW U || ftTH Hfc ^H 3t fl?> Hfe II H 1 it of^K U^ufe ufe II tt % off 
^§ ?> fWU II >>ffH3" (TK left Ufa iTO II °l II UWUH U^H^ 
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ii tfl»r ws hst$ ufeira ii »raTK »rara^ ttc 1 ^ofe 1 11 faHfo w? yt ura H3 7 

II 3 II H 1 oft ^ m% fotp?> II UF oft UtT 1 iretw >F?> II W oft 3UW ?> fa^nt 
t^fe II Tre 1 HU 1 Ufa ot 3J^ UTrfe II 3 II dTfo fa^U 1 U^ ^ofe^iTKt II Htf f?>cr?> 
Ufa »TC5tr H»THt || rft»f tfe M Hd£'*fl II ("TOoT (TH frft ^fe»P^t 

ii 8 ii pu ii tfa ii urfsr UT»rM huw u ii tflnr tpfe h 1 it f zph 
ii h frn-ra^ nRTH it (7H ii uf fofe »n£ Hf tw nrfe ii i h^ fwvrfu ufo it 

(Tfe II <\ II fe Ufa ^f dT^ of H 1 ?^ II Ufa PdHdd of^ Htf tWjftl II ^ II 
grpf ii frrf?> tnt ay crafe WH II W oft Hfe tft»f ira^FH II W oft gtfH ?> Ht 
itfe ii tafe fHHfe uf fcSd^Q ufe ii p ii »rs uu^ fHmz m cth ii nffer 

3teH HH?) feHfWJ II U^^UK oft tZ^Urftr II itfe oTOoT ftf?j Hftl t^fe t^ftr 

— — «* 

II 3 II ^HUH 1 ^ y^ 1 U'fdH'd II U5" ^bT TTO 1 %H^ II Ujfe 
yt ^ $ WB II (TTJbT OTJH HH^H II 8 II 3£ II tf U II Ulf^T W^t HU^ 
U II UT^ ydH'fti (TfH HcJ WUF II H?JH tl?JH of Hfe»F WW II >0fte UT^ f^t 
U3" g^ II yt UT^ oft HHfe If^t II <\ II U^ fH>ra3 ^Htf H% U 1 ^ II Uffe 

wfo Htr huh Tra 1 ^ 11 <\ 11 ^rrf 11 Hst iis 1 ^ 1 tti?jftr furfew 11 offe femi 1 
ufe »rfV fwfew ii wz ijbrfe wt^ offe »ri?> t ii ufo ufe oth 1 h^ 1 hu tw?) 7 

■^ — 

ii 3 ii H=r 3? »fftfg yesoti'd ii ufe ufe c^y tftnr w?> wrz 11 ww u^ 
urfe§ ufe ^fftrr ii E3^ 3t h^ it Trftr ii 3 ii Hftr tHzr h? hti?) ira^ 1 ^ 11 ufe 



88 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

^fe ii 8 ii pp ii ti ii urf^t gp^ huw u 11 urre y?>te uftr ddoew n 
feftr t^ftr Hrfenr Htra ii stw gwg ^k ut^ ?fe 11 tw u^r At ^t nte 
ii °i ii fog" $tffe oTurfe HH^st ii ^h (7K ufe >>rte H^st ii ^ ii grrf ii for 

of^ftT §t Wfu faora II frTHgH ^K <7ZJT HH H 1 ^ II ETCH ^fe ^ E3" ?> Hff II 
Hrfew HUT?) ?> ofgW Ht II 3 II Qlldfd »TtU 3t HTFf II ^K (7H HtV £doCd 

ii »rtu or>rf »f^^ T fu^H ii ^k (TH ftrat iratH ii 3 ii w t Hil £y fotp?> 

II HFt UW HU ^dl^'cS II »P?5 UU^ Ufa Ufa ai^ W§ II of^ (-TO5T ^j§ feg gfo 
FF§ II 8 II Ptz || tP II 



The distinctive features of the phonetics of the vocables of Sukhmani may be presented 
as follows : 

3J3£ HfddJdS dJdt^S ife 3T?>t TOTH ^ faup> fwO TWif 

fegijT f|ar fzzw fw ^h 1 ^ ^fEt^ iHftr ira^?> >»ry<VHl fort 

** •*, «* 

H3TW fsf»F HftT §3H forfe»F H3TW ^ HT7T >>fte i 1 ?)* TOTt PycW'tt 
fteWU for?) ^»F Mfc 33?) H3?> off?J of^T) 3tTW 3tfW 3tf¥^ 

H 1 ?) w> r6ddj<s H^ar?? faum % te tor? s^ fyti'd 1 yl-d'dfd 
faro tH3^ t^ft s^ fyOd'd y^'dil to$ fa^ar 

^/W 3RFW 3RTW ^ /^"JTO (TOcf UTft /^"TTO II US'?) fH»P7)U dl6d'H 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 89 



H3?7 foTKto ftoWn fwira - mn?> H^^st u^irst ar?>3Tfe 

ora?> otd'^A oi^oTO oid^d'd ofdld'd >X< , J^»^»fTO 



On the other hand, the phonetics of some of the other compositions of the same author 
analysed here, present the following distinctive features. Obviously, they represent two 
different linguistic registers. 



^ft f%sJ^t»F T& 3tfw Ul^r 3^ 31^ tfl^ 1 " ^ ^»F P^H'fd 
H^'did'd Hd'dlil fW^F Hdi'dldl fe f%H3T ^sl'dll TTO^t 3J^ 



H^HUTFU fe?> tfe 

t^Trast t^ fefenr Htre^s ora^o^ te ?z& »ngTq^T Qyid^o'd 



31§3t oft ^ HUTF U 



90 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

Hdi'«1 ^H q^t t^t IfSt Ugrfenr ^fe»PET»F f%S^ feH'dt) 333 
t^£d'd ^ffi WZ\ TTOSt f%3J§ f^H HH3H33 HUfe 0>dy'£ flfe 



f^di'H 1 h^ ?gt are fa»reu f%f# s^t ^fe»ret HUfe sra^ ^sf'dll 

^f fcftffetf dl£d'H ^tf^ oidld'd f%Ht U^t t^t S^t ^tPSt offe»P3 



It is interesting to note that the language of Japuji of Guru Nanak, the inaugural 
composition of Guru Granth, composed almost a hundred years before Sukhmani, 
operates at another linguistic register. As opposed to the domination of b/n of 
Sukhmani, there is invariably w/n in Japuji : 



ttfoTO H^fe >XH?)t M UT^ Ifflrfe II 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 91 



II HU II 
»ffe H? HUFfe Hf II ff 5t Hf (W^f UHT 3\ Hf II ^ II 
HtHfe?) U^Ht H HUt Wtf ^ II ft fU ?> U^Ht H 75^ dTF fe^ 3^ II 

ffw ftr ?> §3^t h ^V ytfor ^ ii huh frwstr w=r uftr 3 feor ?> ew 

(Tfe II fof^ Hf^Fd 1 UFPtf fef^ 3# ft IFfo II foffi-{ dtFFt ^75^ ("TOof 
fofw ?Ffo II ^ II UofHT U^fo ttFoFd" fofH 7) offu»F tFFt II fofHT U^fo tfl»f 

uoffK fat ^tonst ii uojHt fny ?>tf uoffK foftr ftr gtr iFstvxfd" 11 febw 

fofHT ^tfHTH fefof fofHT HE 1 ^stwfd" II fofH >>fefo Hf it wfo fofH ?> tfe 
II ("TOoT fofH H ft 3" U§H dlt ?> itfe II 3 II UF# it 3^ ut fofH H 1 ^ II UF# 
ot U% ^rf jfljre || UP# ot 313 ^fe»F5t»F W3 II UF# ot f%fe»F f%tjy ^far^ 

ii urt ot tfth oft 3^ ^zr ii upf ot rftw t fefo %u ii urt 

ot iTO feH Ufa II UF# ot tt UW 1 ZTUfo II ofH?F ofHT ?> »nt tfc II offe offe 
ofHT oT3T otfe otfe II £^ £ t£ Hfof IFfa II HUF Hdldfd tFUT tpfu" II fofHT 
fofH Stfi* d^ II (WJof f%3TH tUd^rf || 3 || ht^t flrfoj j^ j^rfe grfw gr§ 

»Ri T f ii »rtfftr Hurftr ^f\r £f\r erfe oft e 1 ^ ii #fo for »# d*ffw faf fet 

tidy'd II Hff fof £?53 ttffw ftTf ffe tit fi[»rf II »ffH3 ttf 7 Hf ?F§ 
^fe»F5t f%^f II ofdHT »rt ofl^r ?>edT HV f»Ff II FTOof £t tF5T>^ Hf »FU 
HfWf II 8 II HrfW ?> tFfe ofte 1 7) Ufe II »FU »TfV ((WHA Hfe II frTf?> 
Hf%»F fef?> IFfW H 1 ?? II (WJbT UF^TW 3J^t feTO II UF#^ HS^ Hf?) W^ 

^f ii tw iranfe m ujfe t w?e ii urayftr (To urayftr tu urayftr dfu»r 

HH 1 ^ II UJf HtHf UTf Ura^ g^H 1 UJf U^^HT H 1 ^ II H uf W& »f T tf T (TZft 
ofU^ ofH?> 7) WZ\ II Ura 1 feof ^ftl ?Wt II H^T tfW oT fe E 1 ^ 1 H H f%H^ 
?j WZ\ II U II Htefe (T^ 1 H feH ^^ f%3 5^ fe (Tfe ofdT II H^t tHdfe 
flFHt ftp f%^ ofdH 1 fe ftra 75^ II Hfe f?fe d3?> H^'dd Hrfeof H feof UJ^ 
oft fatf H^t II Ura 1 feof £fa l^t II H5(^ tfl»F of fe E 1 ^ 1 H H feHfo ?j 
tFHt II ^ II H HUT ^t »FdH T U^ EH^t ufe II ?^ tfe 1 fefe H^>H (Tfe eW 
Hf otfe II tTUF (Tf d^ffe ot HH offefe H^T ^fe II H feH ?>ufe ?j nf^t ? 
^3 7) Ut it II offer >>fefo offe offe EHT EH qt II ("TOoT 0>ddlfe 313 oft 



92 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

dli^fdW Ure £ II 3U 1 itfe 7) mz\ frT feH UT^ itfe oft II 9 II Hfotf fan 
iffo Hfe (TH II Hfotf trafe q^W ^Tom || Hfe>^ shf W»f OTW II Hfe>tf Ofa 
?> Hot oPW II ("TObT 3UTH 1 OT" feUTH II Hfotf ftf U^T oF (VH II t: II Hfotf 
HtHf S^H 1 fe? II Hfe>tf Hftr HWd£ HE II Hfotf ft^T r^lfe 3fc #U II Hfotf 
HTH? fHfKfe tE II FTOoT gUTH 1 OT" f%3FH II Hfe>tf ftf U^T 5F (VH II tf II 
Hfe>tf H? H3tf faT»F?> II Hfotf >X3Hfe oF [fcHcVA II Hfotf life life OTfa 
H 1 ?? II Hfe>tf TO HUftT fa»F?> || (WjoT gUTH 1 OT" feUFH II Hfotf ftf IFU oF 
cVH II ^O II Hfotf H^ 1 UT^ ot UM II Hfotf fttf Ufa U'fdH'O II Hfe>tf Wt 
OTfa &U II Hfe>tf U^ Ut »fHOT II (WJbT gUB 1 OT" feUFH II Hfotf ftf IFU 

or ?th ii «h ii M oft urfe srat ?> w?5 ii ft ot oft Hit y^d'fy 11 oFurfe otoh 

?> fetlScPf II H?> oF gfa ofdf>> ^faf II W (TK f(Sd°H6 tfe II ft ot Hfo rPt 
Hfo itfe II °Q II Ht H^fe Ut Hfo fftl II >ft HUTtf 3^ oft Hfa II >ft yfa 
^fe 1 TT" trfe II Ht HH it TFfe ?> tFfe II W (7K 0>d°H6 tfe II ft it Hfo TO 
Hfo itfe II ^3 II Ht H^ftf S^ ?> IFfe II >ft life fa§ iraU13 fFfe II 

Ht hut ?> sw uh 11 Ht craK ftnt H?>srg ii w ctk (cwha ufe ii ft it nfo 

fPt Hfo itfe II ^8 II Ht OTfa W E»Tf II Ht ira^t HW II tft 3t 3^ 

ara fmr 11 Ht (-roof g^ftr ?> fetr 11 w ctk f(Sd°H(S ufe 11 ft it nfe to Hfe 
itfe ii <\u ii ife tra^5 ife irau 1 ^ 11 iJft u^ftr tdddifo h 1 ^ ii iJft ftuftr ufe 

5W II OT oT UTf ^ fWS II ft it oft oft fOTf II ofg§ it ofgf (TOt H>ff 

ii m cray ufw or ot ii t^ H^lr uftf»r fafo Hfe 11 ft it ft ut Hfwra 
ii cr^w tufa itn 1 ^ra 11 crast tfiraufuf 11 feH^^rant of^ ftf 11 

rTt»T t^fe ^UF it (7^ II TT^T fofw f^t ofWK II ^ $tr feftr TO itfe II 
$tF fefbfW ^H 1 ufe || ^H 1 H 1 ^ H»Tfeg fy II it3t ^fe TO % &3 II offe 1 
UHrf ^it of^f II feH t U^ tftf E^t»rf II cjtJdPd oT^S oTU 1 ^fe 1 ! II ^fw 1 

?> w^ ^of ^ra ii ft ng ^t wz\ w&\ ofra n f h^ 1 HWKfe t?raofra 11 ^ 11 

»fm tlU WHtf gr§ || »fTTtr OT >MHtf 3U 3^ II »fHtT URTH yftr t^ U^ II 

»fm ftur Hfe ^jftr f^H 11 »frttr gurn ut^ ftr»r?j ¥tera 11 »fw H3t »fm 
^THra ii »frttr fra >ra ^tr 7:rra 11 »fHtr Hfe fe^ wfz 3ra 11 ore^fe of^^ ofu 1 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 93 

f%W II ^fe»F 7i W^ £oT W II H 3g ^t H 1 ^ 3tft ore II f H^ 1 TWHfe 
PrtdoCd II ^P II WW HUtT >3W Ufa II »fHtT #d" U^H^ II »fW »fHd" offe 

f^ftr hu ii »fHtr diw^ ufe»r ofHrftr 11 »fm i^ut w ojfe t^fa 11 »fHtr 
^fe»re at fed'fo ii »fHtr h^s hw ^ftr tpfa u »fH*r fifebr fafe brefr ^f 11 

(Wj^ ?)te oft feOT II ^fe»F ?> W^ £bT W II H 3y ^t WZ\ ¥&\ ore || f 
H^ 1 HWKfe ((Wct'd II ^t II »IHtf ?re »|Htf H 1 ^ II ^fUTH »tffH >XHkf fi»f || 

»fm ojufa fafe ^f ufe 11 »wut cth »n=raT hwu ii »wut far»r?> ufte ut^ 

UM II Wrat f*5tJ5 Hflf grfe II ttftra 1 fafe HH3J ?tnfe II fafc £fa fo£ feH 

fafe <7fa ii fo^ fu>n£ fe^ fe^ urftr 11 H3 1 ofte 1 33 1 (Tf 11 te (^ (Tut ot 

Hrf II oWdfe oT^ ofUT ^f II ^fe»F ?> H 1 ^ 1 £bT W II H 3y ^t H 1 ^ 3tft 
bre II f HU 1 HWKfe O^d'd II ^tf II 5^ UH Of 3?> £u II TOt qf f3UH 
£u II H3" Utf^t ojqf ufe II £ HTO tfslw §U qfe II 3^W Hfe U^q 1 ot Hfaf 

ii §f qy (^t it ufar ii y?>t u^ft »fw (Tftr 11 offe orfe bre^ fefk t tre 11 
»ru gtftT »ry ut tre 11 (Ttjot uojht »p^r wu 11 po ii nten ny ufw e^ 

E 1 ?? II H ot qrf few ST H 1 ?? II Hfe»f Hfe»F Hfe offe 1 ^f II »?dddlfe 3fofe 
Hfe (Tf II Hfe UT^ §t H (TUT otfe II te 3J5 cf)3 3Ulfe ?> ufe II H»fHfe 
»ffH TOt S^f II Hfe HU^ H^ 1 Hfe Urf II of^ H t^ ^tf3 of^ of^^ 
fefe of^ ^f II of^fe fe f^t >Tf of^ te U»F »[W II t^ ?j 
UTSW V&3\ fe Ut % y^f II ^tf^ 7) Urfe^ oTUW frT fetffe % ^5 II 
fefe ^f^HUfttrfffeH^^otHt II W oT^H 1 ftra^t off H 1 ^ »PU TO HHt 
II fd& offe »rtT fe HWZft fef ^^?)t fe ff 1 ^ II FTOoT »Tl^fe Hf ot »rt 

febr e fe frrw 1 ^ ii ^^ Hrftjf ^t <rot bfte 1 h 1 or ut ii (-Toot ^ ot »ru 
to n# urfw ?> Ht ii 3^ ii u 1 ^ 1 ^ u 1 ^^ tftr ^fWH 1 nrum 11 §^br §3br 

^fe Hot tu ofUfe febT ^3 II HUH ^(S 1 ^! bTUfe of^ »fHW fe CT^ II $tF 

ufe ? fetft^ $t ufe te 1 ^ ii (Wjbr ^r »rtft>^ »ry n't »ry 11 pp ii h'wJI 

HWfe $3\ Hdfe ?j UTFlW II (-JEW »ft ^U ll^fe HHfe 7) H^»ffe II mfe 
WU HMd'fS ftraU 1 H3t H 1 ^ q^ II bM 3fe 7) U^7)t H feH HOT 7> ^Hdfe 
II 33 II >fe ?j tHSHt bTUfe 7) >fe II >fe ?) bTUt ^fe ?) >fe II >fe ?) ttffe 



94 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

H^fe ?> >% II >% ?> iTO fe»F Hfe % II >% 7) iTO offer »pojra || >% ?> tFU 
u'd'^'d ii >ofe orrafe 33 rywwfd II 3 1 3 >fe ?> IF^ tFfe II Sfr >% ?> TO 
otfe II gUH 1 dTUfrtf ^UB 1 Ufe II ^^ TFfef §W W§ II §3 fufe f^ 1 (7f II 

^f fu 1 ut 3fe 11 fey §3 oj§ to Hfe 11 ^f »rfV to »rflr 

»TfU II ("TOoT FJE^t o^Kt ^rfe II 38 II 3UH 1 oraH fefw ?F TFfe II ^^ U 1 ^ 1 
few ?> 3>Ffe II 33 HUlfe Hd" WFd" II 3fe»F 31SS ?Kft ^fera II 33 trfU 3^fe 

tojra ii 33 ^ ^ yora iFfe ii 33 H^tr trzft trfe 11 3fe»F etr §tr hu Hra ii 
£fe fe ^rfe M e 1 ^ ii Hfe tfWT^t 3^ ufe 11 % »rftr 7i Flit otfe ii h 3 
tpfe^ »rtffe iFfe ii §$r to ff3t»F yfe *ffe 11 »f0 to »rT £fe 11 »Ftffe 

fe fe 3^t 3fe II feH ?> m*H ftrefe HWZT II FTOoT U'feH'dl U'feH'd II PU II 
WJW 3J^ WjS ^W II »fHtf ^Urat£ »fHW ^ra II »fHW »F?fe »fHtf t tFfe 

ii wro ^fe niy^ HHrfe ii >m>to cray »fyw etro 11 wra hw »fyw ira^i 
ii mm wmfo »iyw ?>tTO ii wra dray wra f^ro 11 »fy& »fy$ »Ffw ?> 
fFfe ii »rftf »rftr ^3 fe^ wfe ii »Ftrfe tu ifs yro 11 »Ftffe i^ orafe 
^ftmre ii »Ftffe h^h nrtffe fee 11 »Ftffe uaft 3 uffltu 11 »Ftffe Etrra 
»Ftrfe fan ii »Ftrfe 33 offe §tr 11 »Ftrfe u^ »Ftffe ^ 11 »Ftffe yfe ?ra 
yfe rr?> h^ ii 33 wvfu »Ftffe iFfe 11 33 ojfe orfe ffe ffe wfu ii £3 313 
ufe orafe ii 3 1 »rftr 7i Hbrfe 3nt 3fe ii ^f grf 3^f ufe ii (Wjot to jfu 1 
Hfe ii h 3 »rt %feuF§ ii 3 1 feM fefe di'^'d 1 ur^ra II P^ II H Ef 3ut h 
ura 3U 1 te gfe ^ra^ hh 1 ^ ii ^ (-to n^bT mw 33 ^'^id'd ii 33 wm 
irat fef oral»ffe 33 di'^d'd ii ur^fe hu^ ife TOt trfef urt gw cray 
e»f% ii ur^fe fe^ uri^ foftr FT^fe feftr feftr cray ^t n ur^fe ste 

g^K 1 ^t HUfe HU 1 H^t II UF^fe f£e fe^Hfe t§ ^fe»F ufe ?F^ II 
UF^fe ftw Hmft >>fefe UF^fe HHT fe^t II UF^fe t^ HB^ Tlttft UF^fe ^fe 

sra^ ii UF^fe ufe^ i^fe gtftfra yuj fl?r t^ 1 (7^ ii ur^fe >toW h^ Hufe 

H^BF H5 llfe»F^ II UF^fe ^H?j flF£ 3t »f3Hfe 3HH ?F^ II UF^fe Hn 
HU^W H^ 1 UF^fe tp^t ^t II UF^fe *fe HSW ^d^ 1 offe offe ^ Ura II ^Ft 
3U^ UF^fe H 3n ^^fe ^3 3t 5BFJ ^H 1 ^ II U^ 33 UF^fe ^ H fefe 7) 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 95 

»r^f?) 7^m few ^tera ii HHt HHt Tre 1 Hf wfrns ww w%\ ??z\ n fr w\ urft 

W?E 7) Wti\ 3W frTf?> 3Wt II 3uft ^Uft ^t offo offo frf?>Ht Hrfw frTf?> 
fl^t II offo offo ft offe 1 »RI^ fa^ feH Et ?fe»ret II H feH ^t HHt 

orarft uoth ?> bra^ 1- ^t n ft urfeHra w y'fdH'fdy ?roor gu^ gwnt 
ii P9 ii he 1 #/y h^k i^ #wt ftj»T77 oft braf\r tefe ii f$w oto avxrat 

oPfew tpfe i^ 1 Uddlfd II »TFt UHt TOW HH 1 ^ Hfe tflt TOJ t% II »r£y 
fet »n£y II »ffe >M?)te »f?J T fe mcS'dfd TOT HUT ^ot %H II Ptz || f^lfe rai»T?> 

ufw ^'dfe uffe uffe ^rrftr (7U ii »rfV (TH (THt H3" h 1 oft raftr frrfa 
w^ 1 ttc ii 71% f%^ar ?fe brra tjw^fo $£ »r^f\r wm ii »r£y feH »n£y ii 

»ffe >M?)te Wjrfe mcS'dfd HUT TOT £ot %H II 3tf II ^of H^ HUlfe fowt 

fefc 3$ ira^ ii fe HHrat fe ^rat fe w$ utw ii te 
fey grf fet ewt fo^ ut f^K 1 ^ ii §g %t fe ?>ufe ?> »rt SUH 1 £zr 

te 1 ^ II »T^H feH »r£y II »ffe W)te Wjrfe Wi'dfe TOT TOT £bT %H 
II 30 II »fTO tffe tffe ^ra II H fef UrfeW H ^oP ^ra II offe offe tt 
(Hdri&d'd II (TTJoT H^ oft TTOt otra II »[%* feH »f%T II »Ffe »f?>te Wife 
Wdfe HUT TOT £bT %H II 3^11 febT E fftt W=T ufe W=T U^fe W=T ^tH II tftf 
tftf Ufe 1 »Ttft»ffe ^ (TK HdltilH II ^ Wfu life l^t»F B^tw Ufe febftH II 
Tjfe UW »TbT T H oft offe 1 nr^t #T II (WibT ?j^t iretw f37 ft Sfa II 33 II 
»Ttffe % §U ("nT % II flf ?) H3lfe £fe ?> % II flf 7i tffefe >rafe 7JU" flf II 

% ?> gitT Hrfe Hfc % ii % ?j ms\ ftrnrf?) ^ItJ'fd 11 % ?> nur^t ft TWf 

II faH Ufe % offe tt Hfe II ("TObT f3H ?>tf 7) otfe II 33 II ^t §Ht fe^t 

^ra ii u^ u^t »raT?)t i^H^ ii ferj t%fe cra^t nrflr gtft traH ffw ii ferj 
t%fe tftnr Hurfe it gV 11 fe?j it (7K nf^br »f^ 11 brant braHt ufe ^tera 11 
m* »rtu tto 1 tddy'd 11 fet Trof?) ife ira^ 1 ^ 11 ?>^t brafK ut ?fcvz 11 org 

IJbT^ §H Urfe II (TObT UTfe»F H^ t^fe II 38 II traH ife oT ^t iraK II 

raf»r?j ife or »rtRr bray 11 bt§ u^^ i^st tife^ bt§ bT^ >rarr 11 33 ss^ 

UP3T3 UJ^Xftr |U ^UT bt %H II bt3t»F braK |>ft >ra btt btt IT fll^H II bt§ 
t^E UE Tra ot§ bt§ H5W ^HIIot§tTWmT?J T Hot§o^^ : ttHllot§^ 



96 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

E 1 ?^ Hf?) ot§ ot§ U3?> HH^ II ctnt»F iret otntw ^t ot§ ire ?>fUU II ot3t»F 
HU^t H^bT ot§ ("jTTjof >% ?> >fe || 3U || fui»n?> $3 Hfa faPtf 1 ?? iraUf II fat 

(■to fa^u ot^ »f£f ii huh *fe oft ^5t uy ii fat up^fe ui^tw gun »f??u 11 

3 1 oft»F W d7Ht»F ?jt HTftl II 3 ot oft fat USHrfe II fat U|3t>tf HUfe Hfa 
Hfa fftr II fat U|3t>tf HU 1 tar oft Hfa II 3£ II ojuh *fe oft wt % II fat 
UU 7) otst % II fat HU HU 1 ^ HU II fe?> Hfa U'H ufa»F 3UUU II fat Htt 
Hfe 1 HfUH 1 W?U II 3 1 ot UU ?> oJH?> trfu II 7? §fa HUfa ?> S 1 ^ rrfu II fa?> ot 
mj #H7) Hrftj II fat 3UB" ^HftT ot fi»f II dTUfa »fS? HU 1- Hfa Hfa II HU 
tffa ^H Oidd'd II offa offa tt ?>ufu fcu^ II fat *fe H3tf ^U#^ II H ot oft 
U >fe ?> >tfU II fetMM »PbT T ^ || fa^ fa^ UoJH fat fe^ oPU II tt f%UIH 
offa ^tura II (TOoT oTH?^ ofU^ Hf II 3P II HU IJTUra 1 tftUH HfottPU II »fUUfe 
Hfa tf UUt»TU II U§ tfW »fU[fa HU U^ II U^ 1 gr§ ytffrf^ fe^- ^rfo || 
U|^t>tf H3? HUT ^ofH'W II fa?> off ?>ufu ofgy fe?> ot^ II (TOdT ?>UUT ?>UfU 
feu 1 ?* II 3tz II H% II U^ UTU U^t fau 1- HB 1 trafe HUH II fa^H wfs Ufa 

u'nt urfw 3t Hura huiu ii ufur»nFt»F ffawtw ^u cray uufa ii srant 
»ru »ri^t ot ?>f ot ufa ii fa?>t (Ty fwfew ur£ HHbrfe urfe 11 (-toot u ytr 
§h& otut sut (Tfe ii ^ ii 



The distinctive phonetic features of Japuji may be presented as follows : 

HUH fw^lT tftf Ufa U febT ?j ut (Tfa II 
UoTHt U^fa rft»T Uoffa fat ^fe»P5t II 

UFtotn^uttoTHH^iiurtot wfs wz ?ftwz II 

urt ot 3j3 ^fanrstnr ura 11 urt ot f%fa»r f%try ^fera 

("TOoT f%3TH tuu^u II 

rfiftis %w hu (^ ^fenrut f%^^ ii 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 97 

UF^frtf HS^ Hfc ttffi ^f II 

H H f%Hfo 7) WZ\ II 

te 3^ fe <7fe 5^ || 

(TOoT foddlfe 1!^ oft dja^TdW 3J1 £ II 

Hfe^ Hftr HWd£ HE II 

Hfe>^ Tms frrfafe #u 11 

(■TOoT gUB 1 HU 1 f%3FH II 
oPUTfe oftfH ?> fetf^Pf II 

u^ ira^ 1 ^ *fo iran 1 ?? ii 

oWdfd of^ ofUT ^fe^f II 

»fm uran yftr #u ire 11 
wk 5UT3 ut^ ftrnp?) ^u ii 

^rfw ?> W^ £bT ^ II 
»P=raT ftw^ Hflf H^fe || 
te (Tt (TZft ot Hrf II 

te are oft§ gurfe ?> ufe ii 
frr u# ^y ira 7 ^ ii 

frT fotffc ^y 33^ II 

febr e fe fanp^ II 

^ Hrftra ^t (THt offe 1 H 1 oT ut II 

^tf 1 Ufe 3" fotftw $t ufe f%^H II 

>% ?> oraf £fe 7) >% II >% ?> %¥fe HSfe ?> >% II 

otfe»f 3133 ?Kjt ^f II 

wra cray wra eta 1 ^ ii wm hw »f>ra ira^ 11 
nrm wmfo »fyw ?>frre 11 »fyw °^y ^M f^H 1 ? 11 
»rtff\r y^ oraftr ^fa»re 11 
»rtfftr tu ire ira 1 ^ 11 
»rtff\r y^ oraftr ^fa»re 11 



98 THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 

33 di'^d'Q ii 

fe feH ut ^fe»ret ii 

fefc 3$lre^ II 
fetfi>Etw ii 

frPTUt f^H 1 ? II 

^UHT^te^ II 

offo offo tt (Hddid'd II 

% ?> ttefe HUfe ("nT % II 

fet HUfc ife ira^5 II FJE^t of^H lit tftWZ II 

33 14^3 lT5t #H3^ 33 ofr?J H3H II 

33t»r tret 33frr H'st 33 ire ?>fw n 

H^K tfe 3^ H'St fy II 

tt fear^ offe ^te^ ii 



The language of Sukhmani, as stated earlier, is dominated by [b] and [n], with a few 
variations of [w] and [n]. On the other hand, in other texts of the same author, [w] and 
[n] dominate with very rare variations of [b] and [n]. The phonetic register of Japuji 
seems to correspond well with other compositions. Guru Arjan was the Editor of Guru 
Granth with Bhai Gurdas as his Scribe. Both were highly euridite scholars. This is why 
this constant mixing of linguistic registers and these numerous orthographic variations 
are problematic. On the other hand, we must not forget that we are dealing here with the 
language of the sixteenth century, a language in transition, both formally and 
semiotically, and there can be several reasons for the complexity of the linguistic 
registers due to different levels of the religious discourse, due to the exigencies of the 
musical compositions, and maybe, due to different scribes and copyists. Whatever may 
be the logic behind all these highly intricate manoeuvres of linguistic and discursive 
formations, of theology and musicology, the fact remains that the formal aspect of 



THE LANGUAGE OF SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB 99 



Gurbani requires extremely meticulous study and attention. At this stage, we can draw 
two conclusions. Firstly, the tradition of memorizing the compositions is fraught with 
all kinds of complications. It is very difficult, if not outright impossible, to memorise 
even a very short text, even a single page, without making several articulatory mistakes. 
Secondly, the [sud path], the absolutely correct enunciation, the most sacred task in 
Sikh theological tradition, has to be very, very slow. One has to pause at every clause to 
be able to follow the phonetic contours of the ensuing utterance. This exercise must 
take several days, if not weeks, to complete the reading of the entire Granth, to maintain 
even the semblance of correct enunciation. The alternative is a sacrilege in every sense 
of the term. 



Harjeet Singh Gill 
Professor Emeritus 
Jawaharlal Nehru University 
New Delhi.